The grid below depicts sonograms of the three most frequently used vocalizations (calls) among red crossbills. Although there is some variability among individuals in call structure, the differences among forms (Types 1 to 7) are sufficient for diagnosing the species identity of most unknown flocks or individuals in the field. Sonograms used here were chosen, from among thousands, to represent the modal structure for each species.
Click on the play buttons for the sounds. Other images are hyperlinks to further descriptive information. See the main page of this guide for information about compatibility between audio files types and Web browsers.