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Ambystoma Tschudi, 1838

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Ambystomatidae > Genus: Ambystoma
33 species

Axolotus Jarocki, 1822, Zool. Universal List Animals, 3: 22. Type species: Axolotus pisciformis Jarocki, 1822 (= Gyrinus mexicanus Shaw and Nodder, 1789), by subsequent designation of Smith and Tihen, 1961, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 18: 215. Placed on Official List of Rejected and Invalid names by Opinion 649, Anonymous, 1963, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 20: 102–104. Synonymy by Smith and Tihen, 1961, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 18: 215.

Philhydrus Brookes, 1828, Prodr. Synops. Animal.: 16. Type species: Siren pisciformis Shaw, 1802 (= Gyrinus mexicanus Shaw and Nodder, 1789), by monotypy. Placed on Official List of Rejected and Invalid names by Opinion 649, Anonymous, 1963, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 20: 102–104. Synonymy by Smith and Tihen, 1961, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 18: 174; by implication of synonymy of Siren pisciformis with various nominal species of Ambystoma by Leunis, 1860, Synops. Drei Naturr., Zool., Ed. 2: 148; Baird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 291; and Cope, 1868 "1867", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 19: 180.

Siredon Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 209–210; also named in Wagler, 1830, Descript. Icon. Amph., Livr. 2: 8. Type species: Siredon axolotl Wagler, 1830 (= Gyrinus mexicanus Shaw and Nodder, 1789), by monotypy. Placed on Official List of Rejected and Invalid names by Opinion 649, Anonymous, 1963, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 20: 102–104. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 44; Hay, 1892, Annu. Rep. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Indiana for 1891: 425; Smith, 1939, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser., 24: 16.

Phillhydrus Gray In Cuvier, 1831, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9: 108. Type species: Siren pisciformis Shaw, 1802 (= Gyrinus mexicanus Shaw and Nodder, 1789), by monotypy. Placed on Official List of Rejected and Invalid names by Opinion 649, Anonymous, 1963, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 20: 102–104. Synonymy with Siredon by Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 108. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 44;  Smith and Tihen, 1961, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 18: 174.

Axolot Bonaparte, 1831, Giorn. Arcad. Sci. Lett. Arti, Roma, 49: 77. (Reprinted as Bonaparte, 1832, Saggio Dist. Metod. Animal. Vert.: 77). Type species: Siren pisciformis Shaw, 1802 (= Gyrinus mexicanus Shaw and Nodder, 1789), by subsequent designation of Smith and Tihen, 1961, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 18: 174. Nomen nudum attributed to Cuvier, or more likely an incorrect subsequent spelling of Axolotus Cuvier and Latreille. Placed on Official List of Rejected and Invalid names by Opinion 649, Anonymous, 1963, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 20: 102–104.

Axolotus Cuvier, 1831, Animal Kingdom (M'Murtrie), 2: 89. Type species: Siren pisciformis Shaw, 1802, by monotypy. Synonymy by implication with Steogoporus by Leunis, 1860, Synops. Drei Naturr., Zool., Ed. 2: 148. Note: it is unclear to me why Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept., 1(Amph.) 61, assigned the authorship of this name to Cuvier and Latreille, when the title of the volume clearly limits Latreille's authorship to arthropods—DRF. 

Sirenodon Wiegmann, 1832, in Wiegmann and Ruthe (eds.), Handbuch der Zool., Amph.: 204. Type species: Siredon axolotl Wagler, 1830 (= Gyrinus mexicanus Shaw and Nodder, 1789), by monotypy. Placed on Official List of Rejected and Invalid names by Opinion 649, Anonymous, 1963, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 20: 102–104. Synonymy by implication of synonymy of type species into Ambystoma by Leunis, 1860, Synops. Drei Naturr., Zool., Ed. 2: 148; Baird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 292; Cope, 1868 "1867", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 19: 180.

Stegoporus Wiegmann, 1832, in Wiegmann and Ruthe (eds.), Handbuch der Zool., Amph.: 204. Substitute name for Sirenodon Wiegmann, 1832. Placed on Official List of Rejected and Invalid names by Opinion 649, Anonymous, 1963, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 20: 102–104. 

AxolotlVan der Hoeven, 1833, Handb. Dierkd., 2: 305; Guérin-Méneville, 1838, Icon. Regne Animal, 3: 18. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Axolotus Cuvier, 1831.

Ambystoma Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 92. Type species: Lacerta subviolacea Barton, 1804 (= Lacerta maculata Shaw, 1802), by monotypy. Chosen to have priority over Xiphonura Tschudi, 1838, by action of first revisor (Baird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 285). Placed on Official List of Generic names in Zoology by Opinion 649, Anonymous, 1963, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 20: 102–104.

Xiphonura Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 95. Type species: Salamandra jeffersoniana Green, 1827, by monotypy. Synonymy by Baird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 281–294; Cope, 1859, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 11: 123. Treated as a subgenus by Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 147, and Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept., 1(Amph.): 79. See comment below regarding the status of this subgenus. 

PhylhydrusSwainson, 1839, Nat. Hist. Fishes Amph. Rept., 2: 94. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Philhydrus Brookes, 1828.

Salamandroidis Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 33. Type species: Lacerta subviolacea Barton, 1804 (= Lacerta maculata Shaw, 1802), by original designation. Synonymy by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 35.

AxolotesOwen, 1844, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 1, 14: 23. Incorrect subsequent spelling of "Axolotl Humbodt and Cuvier". Synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 44; Hay, 1892, Annu. Rep. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Indiana for 1891: 426.

AmblystomaAgassiz, 1844, Nomencl. Zool., Fasc. 6: 2. Incorrect subsequent spelling or emendation of Ambystoma Tschudi, 1838. Placed on Official Index of Rejected and Invalid names in Zoology by Opinion 649, Anonymous, 1963, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 20: 102–104.

PhyllidrusAgassiz, 1844, Nomencl. Zool., Fasc. 6: 2: 6. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Phyllhydrus Gray, 1831.

Limnarches Gistel, 1848, Naturgesch. Thierr.: xi. Substitute name for Ambystoma Tschudi, 1838.

Xiphoctonus Gistel, 1848, Naturgesch. Thierr.: xi. Substitute name for Xiphonura Tschudi, 1838.

Axolotus Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 49. Type species: Axolotus mexicanus Shaw and Nodder, 1789 (= Gyrinus mexicanus Shaw and Nodder, 1789), by monotypy. Synonymy by implication of Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 44. 

Heterotriton Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 49. Type species: Salamandra ingens Green, 1831 (= Salamandra tigrina Green, 1825), by monotypy. Synonymy by Cope, 1859, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 11: 123. Treated as a subgenus of Ambystoma by Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77–161; see comment below. 

SalamandroidesGray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 35. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Salamandroidis Fitzinger, 1843.

Plagiodon Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 101. Substitute name for Ambystoma Tschudi, 1838.

AmbistomaJan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 55. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Desmiostoma Sager, 1858, Peninsular J. Med. Coll. Sci., 5: 428. Type species: Desmiostoma maculatus Sager, 1858, by monotypy. See comments by Dunn, 1940, Copeia, 1940: 154–162, regarding allocation of this name. Synonymy with Ambystoma by Cope, 1868 "1867", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 19: 180. Synonymy with Heterotriton Gray, 1850, by Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 111 (but see incertae sedis under Ambystoma).

Camarataxis Cope, 1859, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 11: 122. Type species: Ambystoma maculatum Hallowell, 1858 "1857" (possibly = Ambystoma nebulosus Hallowell, 1853; see Gehlbach, 1966, Copeia, 1966: 881-882), by original designation. Synonymy by Strauch, 1870, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, Ser. 7, 16 (4): 61.

Axoloteles Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 183. Type species: Axoloteles guttatus Wood, 1826, by monotypy. Synonymy with Ambystoma by Smith, Fawcett, Fawcett, and Smith, 1970, J. Soc. Bibliograph. Nat. Hist., 5: 362-365.

AcholotesCope, 1868 "1867", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 19: 184. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Axolotes Owen, 1844.

Pectoglossa Mivart, 1868 "1867", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1867: 698. Type species: Plethodon persimilis Gray, 1859 (= Salamandra jeffersoniana Green, 1827), by monotypy. Synonymy by Strauch, 1870, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, Ser. 7, 16 (4): 69; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 41.

Linguaelapsus Cope, 1887, Am. Nat., 21: 88. Type species: Ambystoma annulatum Cope, 1886), by subsequent designation of Dunn and Dunn, 1940, Copeia, 1940: 71. Synonymy by Günther, 1901, Biol. Centr. Amer., Rept. Batr., Part 169: 295; rejected by Shaffer, Clark, and Kraus, 1991, Syst. Zool., 40: 286, as rendering Ambystoma sensu stricto paraphyletic.

AmbystomaStejneger and Barbour, 1917, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept.: 8. Correction of various misspelling that had taken root. 

Rhyacosiredon Dunn, 1928, Proc. New England Zool. Club, 10: 85. Type species: Amblystoma altamirani Dugès, 1895, by original designation. Synonymy by Brandon, 1989, in Armstrong and Malacinski (eds.), Developmental Biol. Axolotl: 18; Reilly and Brandon, 1994, Copeia, 1994: 656–662.

Plioambystoma Adams In Adams and Martin, 1929, Am. J. Sci., Ser. 5, 17: 517. Type species: Plioambystoma kansense Adams and Martin, 1929, by monotypy. Synonymy by Brame, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 122.

Bathysiredon Dunn, 1939, Not. Nat., Philadelphia, 36: 1. Type species: Siredon dumerilii Dugès, 1870, by original designation. Synonymy (placement as a subgenus) by Tihen, 1958, Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol. Sci., 3: 3, 44. Synonymy most recently by Brandon, 1992, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 532: 1–3.

Lanebatrachus Taylor, 1941, Bull. Kansas Geol. Surv., 38: 180. Type species: Lanebatrachus martini Taylor, 1941 (= Plioambystoma kansense Adams and Martin, 1929), by original designation. Synonymy by Brame, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 124.

Ogallalabatrachus Taylor, 1941, Bull. Kansas Geol. Surv., 38: 181. Type species: Ogallalabatrachus horarium Taylor, 1941 (= Plioambystoma kansensis Adams In Adams and Martin, 1929), by original designation. Synonymy by Brame, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 124.

AmbystomaTihen, 1969, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 75: 1.

Incertae Sedis

Desmiostoma maculatus Sager, 1858, Peninsular J. Med. Coll. Sci., 5: 429. Types: Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: "supposed to be New Mexico" (at the time, including all of Arizona as well), USA. Dunn, 1940, Copeia, 1940: 154–162, regarded this name to be unassignable, although if the type locality is correct it is likely a synonym of Ambystoma mavortium (DRF). Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 111, claimed that Dunn, 1940, suggested this name to be a synonym of Ambystoma mavortium and on that basis and the original paper, which is not diagnostic, they also considered it a synonym of Ambystoma mavortium. The original description does not exclude Ambystoma rosaceum, which is found just south of the international line in Mexico in areas surveyed by the USA–Mexico border survey (DRF).

English Names

Mole Salamanders (Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 26; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 5;Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 27).

Big Salamanders (Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 194).

Typical Mole Salamanders (Subgenus Ambystoma [see comment]: Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept., 1(Amph.): 62). 

Tiger Salamanders (Subgenus Heterotriton [see comment]: Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept., 1(Amph.): 62). 

Flatwoods Salamanders (Subgenus Heterotriton [see comment]: Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept., 1(Amph.): 62). 

Distribution

From Labrador, James Bay, and extreme southeastern Alaska, southward throughout southern Canada, most of the USA, and the Sierra Madre Occidental and central plateau of Mexico; apparently absent from the Florida peninsula; also absent from Nevada, southern California, southwestern Arizona (USA), Baja California, and the tropical lowlands of Mexico.

Comment

See Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 35–129, for detailed accounts and a key to the species of North America. The nomenclatural history of this genus is extremely complex. See Tihen, 1969, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 75: 1–4, for a review. The emended spelling Amblystoma has been used widely, particularly in older literature; this was discussed and corrected by Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 24. See Lazell, 1971, Herpetol. Rev., 3: 53–54, for early rejection of gynogenetic hemilineages as taxa and Lowcock, Licht, and Bogart, 1987, Syst. Zool., 36: 328–336, for discussion of literature and nomenclature of hybrid swarms (e.g., "Ambystoma platineum" and "Ambystoma tremblayi"). Shaffer, 1984, Evolution, 38: 194–1206, discussed the radiation of the southern Mexican Plateau. Shaffer, Clark, and Kraus, 1991, Syst. Zool., 40: 284–303, reported on the phylogenetic relationships of species within Ambystoma. See Bogart, 2003, in Sever (ed.), Reprod. Biol. Phylogeny Urodela: 109–134, for a summary of the literature of hybrid swarms, gynogenetic reproduction, and the systematic issues that extend from these in Ambystoma taxonomy. Larson, Weisrock, and Kozak, 2003, in Sever (ed.), Reprod. Biol. Phylogeny Urodela: 45–50, discussed phylogeny within Ambystoma. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543–583 (see comment in Amphibia record) also provided an estimate of phylogeny within the genus. Powell, Collins, and Hooper, 2011, Key Herpetofauna U.S. & Canada, 2nd Ed.: 9–11, provided a key to the species of the United States and Canada. Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77–161, recognized four subgenera within Ambystoma, without reference to a phylogenetic hypothesis. When caste on the tree of Pyron and Wiens (2011) one arrives at a polyphyletic Lingualapsus, a polyphyletic Xiphonura, a polyphyletic Ambystoma, and a monophyletic HeterotritonFouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept., 1(Amph.): 60, implied that the earlier taxonomy of Dubois and Raffaelli, which they accepted, was based on the tree of  Jones, Kluge, and Wolf, 1993, Syst. Biol., 42: 92–102, which was based on substantially less evidence and fewer terminals that that addressed by Pyron and Wiens (2011). Charney, Ireland, and Bettencourt, 2014, J. Herpetol., 48: 210–219, reported on the genotype distributions of unisexual populations in Massachusetts, USA. 

Contained taxa (33 sp.):

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