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Caudata Fischer von Waldheim, 1813

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata
679 species

Meantes Linnaeus, 1767, Syst. Nat., Ed. 12, 1(2) Addenda: sign. Rrrr5, Addenda (not paged). Taxon (above family-group, presumably an order since he did not use families in this work) for Siren. Regarded as the appropriate ordinal-group name when applied to sirens by Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 104. Treated as a suborder to contain solely Sirenidae by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept., 1(Amph.): 51. 

Gradientia Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 36. Heterogenous order containing salamanders, Crocodylus, Caudiverbera, several lizards, and sharing Proteus with Salientia.

Caudata Scopoli, 1777, Intr. Hist. Nat. Sist. Gen. Lapid. Planat. Animal.: 463. Heterogenous taxon; explicit order originally) containing several reptile taxa as well as salamanders.

Pneumobranchiens Sonnini de Manoncourt and Latreille, 1801 "An. X", Hist. Nat. Rept., 4: 309. Explicitly established as an order to contain those salamanders that as adults have both lungs and gills (protée and sirene).

Caudati Duméril, 1805, Zool. Analyt. Meth. Nat. Class. Anim.: 94. Latin equivalent of his Urodèles; explicit family and therefore unavailable). Likely a subsequent use of Scopoli's Caudata (Scopoli, 1777, Intr. Hist. Nat. Sist. Gen. Lapid. Planat. Animal.: 463), but redelimited, excluding the amniote taxa, and with a new content (Triton, Salamandre, Protée, and Sirene). 

Urodèles Duméril, 1805, Zool. Analyt. Meth. Nat. Class. Anim.: 95. Explicit family-group name for salamanders within his order Batracii and therefore not available for use in the ordinal-group. Considered to be the first use of Urodela by Dubois, 2004, Alytes, 22: 1–14. This was rejected by Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 357, who beyond the fact that this is a family-group name and therefore unavailable saw no justification in recognizing non-Latin names in ranks not regulated by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 86, continued to argue for this being the oldest name for the taxon composed of all salamanders, under their supernumerary set of rules not in the Code. Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept., 1(Amph.): 43, argue that because Duméril referred to the taxon as a family, but did not base it on a generic name, not only is it not available as a family-group name, but because of its unavailability at that rank-group it should be be referred to the order-group. This does not correspond to what is generally referred to as logic (DRF) inasmuch as other family-group names, such as Trachystomata, were original coined as families and are there not available. On p. 44, Fouquette and Dubois (2014) argue for Urodela on the basis of usage, although Dubois has in other papers argued against this principal (e.g., Dubois, 2007, Cladistics, 23: 390–402). 

Caudata Oppel, 1811, Ordn. Fam. Gatt. Rept.: 72; Oppel, 1811, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 16: 409. Unavailable family-group name for all salamanders.

Caudati Fischer von Waldheim, 1813, Zoognosia Tab. Synopt. Ill., Ed. 3, 1: 58. Unranked taxon (above the family-group) for salamanders. Alternate name for his Urodeli. See Dubois, 2012, Zootaxa, 3563: 65–68, for discussion (and citation to his literature) of why he thinks the Code regulates names above the family-group. Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77–161, regarded this as a junior homonym of Caudati Duméril, 1805, even though the former is in the order-group and the latter in the family-group.

Urodeli Fischer von Waldheim, 1813, Zoognosia Tab. Synopt. Ill., Ed. 3, 1: 58. Unranked taxon (above the family-group) for salamanders (alternative name of his Caudati). Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept., 1(Amph.): 43, regarded this as a subsequent usage of Urodèles Duméril, 1805, although the earlier name was coined as a member of the family-group. 

Meantia Rafinesque, 1815, Analyse Nat.: 78. Coined as an explicit family-group name and therefore unavailable; for Larvarius, Proteus, Exobranchia, and Sirena. Possibly a redelimitation and incorrect subsequent spelling of Meantes Linnaeus, 1767.

Urodelia  Rafinesque, 1815, Analyse Nat.: 78. Suborder for salamanders. Regarded as a subsequent usage of Urodèles Dumeril, 1805, by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept., 1(Amph.): 43, even though the earlier name was coined as part of the family-group. 

Pseudosauriens Blainville, 1816, Bull. Soc. Philomath., Paris, Ser. 3, 3: 119. Non-Latinized ordinal name for salamanders. Regarded by : 59, as a suborder to contain all salamanders except for those in Cryptobranchidae (presumably Hynobiidae) and Sirenidae. 

Amphibiens Blainville, 1816, Bull. Soc. Philomath., Paris, Ser. 3, 3: 119. Non-Latinized ordinal name for Proteus and sirens. Seemingly an error; see entry under Amphibia. 

Gradientia Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 163, 166. Order containing salamanders.

Amphipneusta Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 163. Tribe (between order and genus, construed here to be in the family-group and therefore unavailable) containing Hypochthon and Siren; by implication, the perennibranch salamanders.

Mutabilia Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 163. Tribe (between order and genus) containing Salamandra and Molge ; by implication, terrestrial, transforming salamanders).

Ichthyoidea Leuckart, 1821, Isis von Oken, 9: 260. Family (unavailable name) for Cryptobranchus and Phanerobranchus (Siren, Proteus, and Salamandra tetradactyla). Regarded as above-the-family-group by Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77.

Perennibranchia Latreille, 1825, Fam. Nat. Regne Animal: 105. Explicit order to contain Proteus and Siren.

Ichtyoida Latreille, 1825, Fam. Nat. Regne Animal: 105. Unavailable family-group name for Proteus and Siren.

Urodela Latreille, 1825, Fam. Nat. Regne Animal: 105. Unavailable as presented as a family for Salamandra, Triton, and Axolotl.

Urodela Gray, 1825, Ann. Philos., London, Ser. 2, 10: 215. Order for all salamanders, attributed to Duméril [1805] and considering Caudata Oppel and Pseudosaurii Blainville to be synonyms. Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept., 1(Amph.): 43, regarded this as a subsequent usage of Urodèles Duméril, 1805, although the earlier name was coined as a member of the family-group. 

PseudosauriiGray, 1825, Ann. Philos., London, Ser. 2, 10: 215. Synonym of Urodela Duméril, attributed to Blainville (Latinization of Pseudosauriens).

Immutabilia Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Class. Rept.: 41. "Tribus" (above family-group) containing the Cryptobranchoidea and Phanerobranchoidea, salamanders that do not transform.

Perennibranchia Berthold, 1827, Latreille’s Nat. Fam. Thierr.: 103. Order for Proteus and Siren.

Branchiuromalgaei Ritgen, 1828, Nova Acta Phys. Med. Acad. Caesar Leopold Carol., Halle, 14: 277. Apparently an unintentional original misspelling of Branchiuromolgaei. Unranked taxon coined above the level of family to contain Siren and Hypochthon.

Dysmolgae Ritgen, 1828, Nova Acta Phys. Med. Acad. Caesar Leopold Carol., Halle, 14: 277. Unranked taxon (above family), alternative name for Branchiuromalgaei, containing Hypochthon and Siren.

Morphuromolgaei Ritgen, 1828, Nova Acta Phys. Med. Acad. Caesar Leopold Carol., Halle, 14: 277. Unranked taxon, above the level of family, containing Molge and Salamandra.

Molgae Ritgen, 1828, Nova Acta Phys. Med. Acad. Caesar Leopold Carol., Halle, 14: 277. Alternative name for Morphuromolgaei. Unranked taxon (above family) containing Molge and Salamandra.

Dipnoa Wagler, 1828, Isis von Oken, 21: 859. Heterogenous tribe (above order) containing Cordylus (Proteus) [?] and Amphiuma and; by implication, Cryptobranchus.

Ichthyodi Wagler, 1828, Isis von Oken, 21: 859. Heterogenous tribe (above order) containing Cordylus (Proteus) [?] and Amphiuma and; by implication, Cryptobranchus.

Sirenes Gray, 1829, Isis von Oken, 22: 204. Order for sirens.

Ichthyodi Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 131, 209. Order for nontransforming salamanders, Salamandrops, Amphiuma, Siredon, Proteus, Necturus, and Siren.

Amphipneusta Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 107. "Section" (= Order) for nontransforming salamanders (Proteus, Siredon, Menobranchus, Siren, and Amphiuma) as well as caecilians.

Derotremata Müller, 1831, Isis von Oken, 24: 711; Müller, 1832, Isis von Oken, 25: 504. Order for Menopoma, Amphiuma.

Urodeli — Eichwald, 1831, Zool. Special.: 164. Explicit family. Explicit subsequent use of the family Urodèles of Duméril, 1805. 

Proteidea Müller, 1831, Isis von Oken, 24: 711; Müller, 1832, Isis von Oken, 25: 504. Order for Proteus, Axolotl, Menobranchus, and Siren.

Salamandrina Müller, 1831, Isis von Oken, 24: 711; Müller, 1832, Isis von Oken, 25: 505. Order, content not mentioned, although by implication all salamanders not included in the Proteida and Derotremata; in other words, all transforming salamanders.

Nullibrachia Bonaparte, 1831, Giorn. Arcad. Sci. Lett. Arti, Roma, 49: 76. Order to contain Abranchus, Menopoma, Amphiuma and Cryptobranchus.

Mutabilia Bonaparte, 1832, Saggio Dist. Metod. Animal. Vert.: 10. "Sezione" (above order) to contain frogs and transforming salamanders, containing only his Caducibranchia (Order).

Caducibranchia Bonaparte, 1832, Saggio Dist. Metod. Animal. Vert.: 10. Order for frogs and salamanders, excluding the perennibranch salamanders.

Amphipneusta Bonaparte, 1832, Saggio Dist. Metod. Animal. Vert.: 11. "Sezione" (above Order) containing the orders Cryptobranchia and Perennibranchia.

Cryptobranchia Bonaparte, 1832, Saggio Dist. Metod. Animal. Vert.: 11. Order for Amphiumidae (including Cryptobranchus).

Perennibranchia Bonaparte, 1832, Saggio Dist. Metod. Animal. Vert.: 11. Order containing Siredon, Hypochthon, Necturus, and Siren.

Sozura Van der Hoeven, 1833, Handb. Dierkd., 2: 304. Explicit Order to contain salamanders not included in his Derotreta (caecilians and Amphiuma).

Pneumobranchiata Hunter, 1834, Descript. Illust. Cat. Physiol. Ser. Comp. Anat., 2: 145. Latinization of Pneumbranchiens Sonnini and Latreille, 1801.

Pseudo-sauria Blainville, 1835, Nouv. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 4: 280. Order for salamanders. Presumed Latinization of Pseudosauriens Blainville, 1816.

Amphipneusta Bell, 1836, in Todd (ed.), Cyclopaed. Anatom. Physiol., 1: 90. Redelimitation of Amphipneusta (order) to include Proteus, Siredon, Menobranchus, Siren, and Pseudobranchus, but exclude Menopoma and Amphiuma.

Abranchia Bell, 1836, in Todd (ed.), Cyclopaed. Anatom. Physiol., 1: 90. Order to include Menopoma and Amphiuma.

Derotremata Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 25. Order for Amphiuma and Menopoma.

Proteideae Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 25. Order for Proteus, Axolotl, Menobranchus, Siren.

Salamandrina Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 25. Order for salamanders not in Derotremata or Proteidea.

Imperfectibranchia Hogg, 1838, Ann. Nat. Hist., London, 1: 152; Duméril, 1863, Mem. Soc. Imp. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg, 9: 301. Order containing Menopomatidae. Regarded by Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77, as the appropriate infraordinal name for Cryptobranchidae + Hynobiidae under their suggested rules, not part of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. So treated by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept., 1(Amph.): 45. 

Diplopneumena Hogg, 1838, Ann. Nat. Hist., London, 1: 152. Subclass containing order Manentibranchia (Sirenidae and Proteidae).

Manentibranchia Hogg, 1838, Ann. Nat. Hist., London, 1: 152. Explicit order containing Sirenidae and Proteidae.

Ichthyodi Bonaparte, 1838, Nuovi Ann. Sci. Nat., Bologna, 1: 393; Bonaparte, 1840, Nuovi Ann. Sci. Nat., Bologna, 4: 101. Order for Sirenidae and Amphiumidae.

Icthyoidi Bonaparte, 1839, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 26): unnumber (2nd page of Euproctus platycephalus account). Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Gradientia Hogg, 1839, Mag. Nat. Hist., N.S.,, 3: 266. Order for Proteus, Triton, and Salamandra. Attributed to Laurenti, but not noting that Laurenti placed Proteus in both Gradientia and Salientia.

Dipoda Hogg, 1839, Mag. Nat. Hist., N.S.,, 3: 271. Explicit order containing Siren and Parvibranchus.

Anguiformia Hogg, 1839, Mag. Nat. Hist., N.S.,, 3: 271. Explicit order containing Siren, Amphiuma, and Parvibranchus.

Lacertiformia Hogg, 1839, Mag. Nat. Hist., N.S.,, 3: 271. Order contining Salamandra, Salamandrina, Molge, Triton, Menopoma, Proteus, and Menobranchus.

Pisciformia Hogg, 1839, Mag. Nat. Hist., N.S.,, 3: 271. Order contining Siredon.

Arcumanentia Hogg, 1839, Mag. Nat. Hist., N.S., 3: 375. Explicit tribe (above family) containing solely Menopomatidae. Indentical in content to Imperfectibranchia Hogg, 1838.

Internibranchia Hogg, 1839, Mag. Nat. Hist., N.S., 3: 375. "Tribe" (over the level of family-group) containing only the Menopomatidae.

Diplopneumena Hogg, 1839, Mag. Nat. Hist., N.S., 3: 375, Subclass with expanded content to include the Tribes Internibranchia (Menopomatidae) and Externibranchia (Sirenidae, Proteidae).

Externibranchia Hogg, 1839, Mag. Nat. Hist., N.S., 3: 375. "Tribe" (over the level of family-group) containing only Sirenidae and Proteidae.

Deiretremata Leuckart, 1840, Froriep’s Neue Notizen, 13: 19. Unavailable family-group name for Amphiuma and Lepidosiren (lungfish).

Ichthyodea Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 388, 395. Order for Amphiumidae and Sirenidae.

Atétrodères Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: plate opposite page 53. "Groupe" (between suborder and family-group) for Salamandridae (excluding only Amphiumidae and Proteidae, in their sense).

Trématodères Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: plate opposite page 53. "Groupe" (between suborder and family-group) for Amphiumidae and Proteidae, in their sense.

Urodèles Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: plate opposite page 53. Suborder for salamanders.

Hemibatrachia Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 33. Explicit order containing salamanders, except for those those in the order Ichthyodea.

Cryptopleurae Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 33. Name coined as a "Section" (above family-group, below order) to contain solely family Salamandrinae.

Geophilii Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 33. Name coined as a "Section" (above family-group, below order) for family Salamandrae.

Derotremata Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 33. Name coined as a "Section" (above family, below order) for families Salamandropes and Muraenopses. An explcit subsequent usage of Derotremata Müller, but with content redefined.

Phaeneropleurae Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 33. "Section" (above family-group, below order), to include solely family Pleurodelae.

Hemisalamandrae Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 34. Name coined as a "Section" (above family-group, below order) for family Megalobatrachi.

Hydrophili Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 34. Name coined as a "Section" (above family-group, below order) for family Tritones.

Branchiata Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 35. Name coined as a "Section" (above family-group, below order) for families Necturi and Sirenes.

Ichthyodea Leunis, 1844, Synops. Drei Naturr., Zool., Ed. 1: 149; Leunis, 1860, Synops. Drei Naturr., Zool., Ed. 2: 341. Unranked taxon (below family-group) for Salamandrops, Stegoporus, Menobranchus, Proteus, and Siren.

Batrachoidei Mayer, 1849, Verh. Naturhist. Ver. Preuss. Rheinlande, 6: 198. Alternate name for Urodeli Mayer, 1849, Verh. Naturhist. Ver. Preuss. Rheinlande, 6: 198. Suborder for salamanders.

Holodactyli Mayer, 1849, Verh. Naturhist. Ver. Preuss. Rheinlande, 6: 198. Taxon coined between suborder and genus for Pleurodeles, Salamandra, Axolotis, Menobranchus, and Menopoma.

Colobodactyli Mayer, 1849, Verh. Naturhist. Ver. Preuss. Rheinlande, 6: 198. Taxon coined between suborder and genus for Amphiuma, Proteus, and Siren.

Urodeli Mayer, 1849, Verh. Naturhist. Ver. Preuss. Rheinlande, 6: 98. Explicit suborder for salamanders.

AtretoderaBaird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 281.

Gradientia Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 3. Suborder containing transforming salamanders (Salamandridae, Molgidae, Plethodontidae).

Meantia Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 6. Order for Proteidae and Sirenidae.

Pseudosauria Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 6. Latinization and redelimitation of Pseudosauriens Blainville, 1813. Order for Protonopsidae and Amphiumidae.

Protei Bonaparte, 1850, Conspect. Syst. Herpetol. Amph.: 1 p. Order to contain Hypochthonidae, Sirenidae, Necturidae, and Siredontidae.

Salamandrae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspect. Syst. Herpetol. Amph.: 1 p. Order for Pleurodelidae, Salamandridae, and Geotritonidae.

Pseudo-salamandrae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspect. Syst. Herpetol. Amph.: 1 p. Order for Andriantidae, Sieboldiidae, Protonopseidae, and Amphiumidae.

Saurobatrachi Van der Hoeven, 1855, Handb. Dierkd., Ed. 2, 2: 461. Explicit order, equivalent to Sozura.

Derotremata Stannius, 1856, Handb. Zootomie Wiebelthiere, 2: 4. Suborder for Amphiuma and Menopoma. Attributed to Müller.

Myctodera Stannius, 1856, Handb. Zootomie Wiebelthiere, 2: 4. Suborder for Triton and Salamandra (exemplars).

Urodela Stannius, 1856, Handb. Zootomie Wiebelthiere, 2: 1. Order for salamanders.

Perennibranchiata Stannius, 1856, Handb. Zootomie Wiebelthiere, 2: 4. Suborder for Siredon, Siren, Proteus.

Myctodera Lichtenstein and Martens, 1856, Nomencl. Rept. Amph. Mus. Zool. Berol.: 43. Unranked taxon (likely a suborder in context, possibly meant as a family) for salamandrids, plethodontids, ambystomatids, and hynobiids).

Urodela Lichtenstein and Martens, 1856, Nomencl. Rept. Amph. Mus. Zool. Berol.: 43. Order for all salamanders.

Menobranchia Lichtenstein and Martens, 1856, Nomencl. Rept. Amph. Mus. Zool. Berol.: 53. Unranked taxon (likely a suborder in context, possibly a family) for Siredon, Menobranchus, Proteus, and Siren.

Trematodera Lichtenstein and Martens, 1856, Nomencl. Rept. Amph. Mus. Zool. Berol.: 45. Unranked taxon (likely a suborder in context, possibly a family) for Amphiuma and Menopoma.

Delesura Jan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 54. Named as a junior synonym of Urodela Dumeril and Bibron.

Atretodeira Girard, 1858, U.S. Explor. Exped. 1838–1842, 20: 3. Explicit latinization of Atétrodères of Dumeril and Bibron, 1841. Containing the Salamandridae (sensu lato).

Trematodeira Girard, 1858, U.S. Explor. Exped. 1838–1842, 20: 2. Unranked taxon (between "Tribus" [Urodela] and family-group). Explicit latinization of Trématodères Dumeril and Bibron, 1841. Containing salamanders with "either gills external or internal gill persisting throughout life".

Diplopneuma Duméril, 1863, Mem. Soc. Imp. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg, 9: 300–301. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Diplopneumena Hogg, 1838. Contains order Imperfectibranchia (Menopomatidae), and Manentibranchia (Sirens, Proteids, and lungfish).

Manentibranchia Duméril, 1863, Mem. Soc. Imp. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg, 9: 301. Order expanded in content over that of Hogg to include lungfish as well as sirens and proteids.

Ramibranchia Duméril, 1863, Mem. Soc. Imp. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg, 9: 301. Tribu (over the level of family-group in context) containing Sirenidae and Proteidae.

Pseudosalamandrae Duméril, 1863, Mem. Soc. Imp. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg, 9: 302. Explicit order to contain Menopomatidae and Amphiumidae.

Salamandrae Duméril, 1863, Mem. Soc. Imp. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg, 9: 302. Order containing Pleurodelidae and Geotritonidae.

Protei Duméril, 1863, Mem. Soc. Imp. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg, 9: 303. Order containing Sirenidae, Proteidae, and Siredon.

Saurobatrachia Huxley, 1863, Q. J. Geol. Soc. London, 19: 66. Salamanders and (apparently) various fossils taxa associated with them.

Caducibranchiata Cope, 1866, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 102. Unranked taxon (above level of family) to contain Amphiumidae, Protonopsidae, Desmogmathidae, Plethodontidae, Amblystomidae, Hynobiidae, Salamandridae, Pleurodelidae.

Proteida Cope, 1866, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 102. Unranked taxon (clearly above family-group), attributed to Müller so must be considered a subsequent spelling of Proteidea Müller. Contains solely Necturus and Proteus. Regal, 1966, Evolution, 20: 405, also used Proteida in this sense. Considered a suborder by Hay, 1930, Carnegie Inst. Publ., 390(1): 841.

Trachystomata Cope, 1866, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 102. Unranked taxon (clearly above the level of family-group) for Sirenidae. Attributed, apparently incorrectly, to Müller. Presumably a reranking of the family-group name Trachystomata Stannius, 1856.

Sozobranchia Haeckel, 1866, Gen. Morphol. Organ., 2: cxxxi. Explicit order within his Lissamphibia to contain "Siren, Proteus, Menobranchus, etc."

Ichthyomorpha Owen, 1866, Anat. Vert., 1: 15. Suborder of Batrachia for salamanders, excluding sirens which were grouped with lungfish.

Proteida Cope, 1868, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 20: 208. Explicit order of amphibians, content not stated, but presumably containing minimally Proteidae.

Urodela Cope, 1868, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 20: 209. Order for salamanders not in Trachystomata or Proteida; content not otherwise stated.

Lechriodonta Strauch, 1870, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, Ser. 7, 16 (4): 108. Tribe within Strauch's family Salamandrida to include what are now hynobiids, ambystomatids, dicamptodontids, and plethodontids.

Saurobatrachia Huxley, 1871, Man. Anat. Vert. Animals: 172. Apparent change in spelling of Saurobatrachii. Stated to be equivalent to Urodela in text.

Proteidea Huxley, 1871, Man. Anat. Vert. Animals: 172. Taxon to contain perinnibranch salamanders.

Salamandridea Huxley, 1871, Man. Anat. Vert. Animals: 172. Taxon to contain transforming salamanders.

Urodelia Fatio, 1872, Fauna Vert. Suisse, 3: 230. Order, alternate name for Saurobatrachii.

Saurobatrachii Fatio, 1872, Fauna Vert. Suisse, 3: 435. Order, alternate name for Urodelia.

Mecodonta Wiedersheim, 1877, Morphol. Jahrb., 3: 459. Taxon of undeterminate rank, above family, containing Urodela.

Ichthyodea Knauer, 1878, Naturgesch. Lurche: 95. Suborder containing taxa (above family-group) Perennibranchiata (Proteidae, Menobranchidae, and Sirenidae) and Derotremata (Amphiumidae and Menopomidae).

Perennibranchiata Knauer, 1878, Naturgesch. Lurche: 95. Unranked taxon (above family-group) for families Sirenidae and Proteidae.

Derotremata Knauer, 1878, Naturgesch. Lurche: 96. Unranked taxon (above family-group) for families Amphiumidae and Menopomidae.

Pseudosauria Cope, 1889, Am. Nat., 23: 861. Primary division of the Urodela (not ranked) containing all salamanders and caecilians, excluding the proteidae and sirens.

Salamandroidea Sarasin and Sarasin, 1890, Ergebn. Naturwiss. Frosch. Ceylon 1884–1886, 2(4): 245. Explicit suborder for salamanders, excluding Amphiuma.

Meantes Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 3; Dunn, 1922, Am. Nat., 56: 427; Noble, 1931, Biol. Amph.: 465; Tamarunov, 1964, in Orlov (ed.), Osnovy Paleontologii, 12: 160; Regal, 1966, Evolution, 20: 405. Suborder for Sirenidae.

Mutabilia Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 2; Dunn, 1922, Am. Nat., 56: 426. Suborder for salamanders, excluding Proteida (Proteidae) and Meantes (Sirenidae).

Proteida Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 2; Dunn, 1922, Am. Nat., 56: 425; Noble, 1931, Biol. Amph.: 483; Tamarunov, 1964, in Orlov (ed.), Osnovy Paleontologii, 12: 163. Suborder for Proteidae.

Caducibranchiata Goodrich, 1930, Stud. Struct. Develop. Vert.: xxi. Suborder of Urodela including Amphiumidae, Ambystomatidae, Cryptobranchidae, Salamandridae, Plethodontidae, excluding Perennibranchiata (Proteidae), and Sirenoidea (Siren).

Perennibranchiata Goodrich, 1930, Stud. Struct. Develop. Vert.: xxi. Suborder of Urodela, including Proteidae.

Sirenoidea Goodrich, 1930, Stud. Struct. Develop. Vert.: xxi. Suborder of Urodela including Sirenidae. Considers Meantes a synonym.

Cryptobranchoidea Noble, 1931, Biol. Amph.: 473. Explicit suborder for cryptobranchids and hynobiids.

Ambystomoidea Noble, 1931, Biol. Amph.: 471. Explicit suborder for ambystomatids (sensu lato).

Salamandroidea Noble, 1931, Biol. Amph.: 473. Explicit suborder for Salamandridae, Amphiumidae, Plethodontidae.

AmblystomoideaRomer, 1933, Vert. Paleontol.: 437. Incorrect subsequent spelling. Explicit suborder.

Plethodontoidea Smith and Taylor, 1948, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 194: 16. Suborder containing Plethodontidae.

Ambystomatoidea Tihen, 1958, Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol. Sci., 3: 3. Explicit suborder for Ambystomatidae (sensu lato).

TrachystomataGoin and Goin, 1962, Intr. Herpetol.: 64. Use as an order for sirens.

Urodela Tamarunov, 1964, in Orlov (ed.), Osnovy Paleontologii, 12: 158. Order for salamanders.

Ambystomatoidei Tamarunov, 1964, in Orlov (ed.), Osnovy Paleontologii, 12: 161. Suborder for Ambystomatidae (sensu lato).

Cryptobranchoidei Tamarunov, 1964, in Orlov (ed.), Osnovy Paleontologii, 12: 159. Suborder for Cryptobranchidae and Hynobiidae.

Salamandroidei Tamarunov, 1964, in Orlov (ed.), Osnovy Paleontologii, 12: 161. Suborder for Salamandridae, Amphiumidae, Plethodontidae, and Batrachosauroididae.

Ambystomatoidea Regal, 1966, Evolution, 20: 405. Explicit suborder for Ambystomatidae (including Dicamptodon and Rhyacotriton), Plethodontidae, and Cryptobranchidae (including Hynobiinae).

Amphiumoidea Regal, 1966, Evolution, 20: 405; Estes, 1981, Handb. Palaeoherpetol., 2: xiv, 41. Suborder containing only Amphiumidae (ascribed in error by Estes to Cope, 1889.)

Salamandroidea Regal, 1966, Evolution, 20: 405; Laurent, 1986, in Grassé and Delsol (eds.), Traite de Zool., 14: 609. Explicit suborder for Salamandridae.

Ambystomatoidea Estes, 1969, Nature, 224: 88. Suborder to include; by implication Prosirenidae, Ambystomatidae, Plethodontidae, Scapherpetontidae, Batrachosauroididae, but presumably not Cryptobranchidae although he was ambiguous on this point. 

Ambystomatoidea Dowling and Duellman, 1978, Syst. Herpetol.: 14: 1; Laurent, 1986, in Grassé and Delsol (eds.), Traite de Zool., 14: 609. Explicit suborder for Scaherpetontidae (fossil), Ambystomatidae (sensu lato), Amphiumidae, and Plethodontidae.

Ambystomatoidei Dubois, 1984, Alytes, 3: 113. Suborder equivalent to Ambystomatoidea Laurent.

Cryptobranchoidei Dubois, 1984, Alytes, 3: 113. Suborder equivalent to Cryptobranchoidea Laurent.

Salamandroidei Dubois, 1984, Alytes, 3: 113. Suborder equivalent to Salamandroidea Laurent.

Proteoidei Dubois, 1984, Alytes, 3: 113. Suborder equivalent to Proteoidea Laurent.

Sirenoidei Dubois, 1984, Alytes, 3: 113. Suborder equivalent to Sirenoidea Laurent.

Proteioidea Laurent, 1986, in Grassé and Delsol (eds.), Traite de Zool., 14: 609. Explicit suborder for Batrachosauroididae (fossil) and Proteidae.

Cryptobranchoidea Laurent, 1986, in Grassé and Delsol (eds.), Traite de Zool., 14: 609. Explicit suborder for Hynobiidae and Cryptobranchidae. Regarded as a junior synonym of Imperfectibranchia by Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 104, on the basis of supernumerary rules not adopted by the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature.

Sirenoidea Laurent, 1986, in Grassé and Delsol (eds.), Traite de Zool., 14: 609. Explicit suborder for Sirenidae.

Diadectosalamandroidei Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 171. Unranked taxon to contain all salamanders, excluding Cryptobranchoidei.

Hydatinosalamandroidei Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 171. Unranked taxon to contain Proteidae, Sirenidae, Ambystomatidae, and Salamandridae.

Treptobranchia Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 173. Unranked taxon to contain Ambystomatidae (including Dicamptodontidae) and Salamandridae. Withouth discussion considered a synonym of Mutabilia Merrem, 1820, by Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 42.

Plethosalamandroidei Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 175. Unranked above-family group taxon to contain Rhyacotritonidae, Plethodontidae, and Amphiumidae. Noted by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept., 1(Amph.): 237, as invalid in the family-group as not being based on a generic name, although the formulation of the name was never intended to be within the family-group. 

Xenosalamandroidei Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 176. Unranked taxon to contain Plethodontidae and Amphiumidae. Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept., 1(Amph.): 87, noted that this name is invalid for the family-group series although it was intended by the authors of the name to be in unregulated nomenclature above the family-group. 

Incertae Sedis

Salamandra strumosa Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 42. Type(s): Including specimen illustrated by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 2: pl. 20, fig. 4. Type locality: "India orientali", presumably in error.

Triton zeylanicus Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 39. Type(s): By indication including specimen illustrated by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 2: pl. 12, fig. 7. Type locality: Not stated; Ceylon [= Sri Lanka] by implication of the name, but this is almost certainly incorrect. Regarded as part of his composite Lacerta lacustris by Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., Ed. 13, 1(3): 1065.

Salamandra lineata Bonnaterre, 1789, Tab. Encyclop. Method. Trois Reg. Nat., Erp.: 62. Type(s): Specimens mentioned by Linnaeus, 1754, Mus. Adophi Friderici, 1: 46; i.e., "Seb. Thes. 2. page 43. t. 41 f. 6". Type locality: "l'île de Ceylan", presumably in error. 

Salamandra terrestris Bonnaterre, 1789, Tab. Encyclop. Method. Trois Reg. Nat., Erp.: 62. Type(s): Specimens mentioned by Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., Ed. 12, 1(1): 371. Type locality: "les contrées méridionales de l'Europe". Likely identical to Salamandra terrestris Houttuyn, 1782, Verh. Zeeuwsch. Genootsch. Wetensch. Vlissingen, 9: 327, and of Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 190; Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: Table following page 618.

Triton similis Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Class. Rept.: 66. Types: Presumably originally in NHMW, but not noted in recent type lists. Type locality: "America septentionali". Considered a nomen dubium by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 50.

Triton ocellatus Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Class. Rept.: 66. Types: Presumably originally NHMW, although not noted in recent type lists. Type locality: "America". Nomen nudum. Considered a nomen dubium by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 50.

Triturus nebulosus Rafinesque, 1832, Atlantic. J. and Friend of Knowledge, Philadelphia, 1: 121. Type(s): Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: "in small streams and fissures of rocks in the knobs of West Kentucky", USA. Junior homonym of Triturus nebulosus Rafinesque, 1820.

Salamandra lurida Rafinesque, 1832, Atlantic. J. and Friend of Knowledge, Philadelphia, 1: 64. Type(s): Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: "hills of East Kentucky", USA. Considered a nomen dubium by A.H. Brame (personal communication).

Salamandra interrupta Sager, 1839, Am. J. Sci. Arts, 36: 321. Types: Not mentioned. Type locality: Not mentioned. Attributed to Green (as "Gr.") in the original, presumably referring to a manuscript or label name which may imply that the type locality is in the New Jersey, USA, region (DRF).

English Names

Salamanders (Common usage; Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 190).

Newts (Common usage).

Distribution

Palearctic Eurasia, North Africa, and the Americas.

Comment

 Edwards, 1976, J. Morphol., 148: 305–328; Hecht and Edwards, 1977, in Hecht et al. (eds.), Major Patterns Vert. Evol.: 3–52; Estes, 1981, Handb. Palaeoherpetol., 2: 1–115; Milner, 1983, in Sims et al. (eds.), Evol. Time Space: 431–468; and Sever, 1991, Herpetologica, 47: 165–193, discussed possible phylogenies. Phylogenetic analyses by Larson, 1991, in Hecht et al. (eds.), Evol. Biol., 25: 211–277, and Good and Wake, 1992, Univ. California Publ. Zool., 126: 1–91, cast doubt on the validity of the subordinal classification of earlier authors. Hillis, 1991, in Green and Sessions (eds.), Amph. Cytogenet. Evol.: 7–31, discussed published evidence of relationships. Larson and Dimmick, 1993, Herpetol. Monogr., 7: 77–93, discussed the evidence for a phylogeny of the families. Gao and Shubin, 2001, Nature, 410: 574–577, provided an analysis of molecular data and morphology (including relevant fossils) that suggested that Sirenidae is not the sister taxon of the remaining salamander families, but the sister-taxon of Proteidae; otherwise their results were largely congruent with those of Larson and Dimmick. Selmi, Brizzi, and Bigliardi, 1997, Tissue and Cell, 29: 651–664, provided synapomorphies from sperm ultrastructure for Caudata (as Urodela) and Cryptobranchoidea and suggested that internal fertlization is the ancestral condition for Amphibia. Larson, Weisrock, and Kozak, 2003, in Sever (ed.), Reprod. Biol. Phylogeny Urodela: 31–108, reviewed salamander phylogeny. Liu, Wang, and Zhou, 2004, Zool. Res., Kunming, 25: 185–190, discussed the placement of Caudata on the basis of tRNA study. Wiens, Bonett, and Chippindale, 2005, Syst. Biol., 54: 91–110, discussed phylogeny of salamanders with respect to the effects of paedomorphy. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 1–370, provided a hypotheses of relationship within and among the salamander families as well as the placement of salamanders with respect to frogs and caecilians. Roelants, Gower, Wilkinson, Loader, Biju, Guillaume, Moriau, and Bossuyt, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 887–892, provided a strongly corrobated tree of salamander families. Weisrock, Harmon, and Larson, 2005, Syst. Biol., 54: 758–777, provided an analysis and provided a less resolved tree. Vieites, Zhang, and Wake, 2009, in Hedges and Kumar (eds.), Timetree of Life: 365–368, provided a tree of families and estimates of divergence times. For general accounts of Eurasian species see Thorn and Raffaëlli, 2000, Salamand. Ancien Monde; for general accounts of the USA and Canada, including a key to larvae and adults and citation to life history information see Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada. Bruno, 1973, Natura, Milano, 64: 209–450, reviewed the species of Italy. Sessions, 2007 "2008", Chromosome Res., 16: 183–201, reported on karyological evolution within Caudata. Zhang and Wake, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 53: 492–508, reported on molecular phylogenetics of salamanders based on mtDNA and provided an estimate of time since origin of the salamander families. Carroll, 2009, The Rise of Amph., reviewed the paleontology of salamanders. San Mauro, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 56: 554–561, provided a multilocus analysis of the age and relationships of major amphibian groups. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543–583 (see general comment under Amphibia record), as part of a larger molecular study that was consistent with (and employed much of the data of) the earlier study of Roelants, Gower, Wilkinson, Loader, Biju, Guillaume, Moriau, and Bossuyt, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 887–892, and confirmed the hypotheses of Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 1–370, that Cryptobranchoidei (Cryptobranchidae + Hynobiidae) is the sister taxon of Diadectosalamandroidei (all other salamanders), confirmed Treptobranchia (Ambystomatidae + Salamandridae), confirmed Plethosalamandroidei (Rhyacotritonidae + [Amphiumidae + Plethodontidae]) and Xenosalamandroidei (Amphiumidae + Plethodontidae), but rejected Hydatinosalamandroidei (Perennibranchia + Treptobrachia), Perennibranchia (Sirenidae + Proteidea), instead placing Sirenidae as the sister taxon of all salamanders except for Cryptobranchoidei. The placement of Sirenidae appears to be problematic, as the traditional placement of sirens is as the sister-taxon of all other salamanders (e.g., as found by Zhang and Wake, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 53: 492–508; San Mauro, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 56: 554–561). Zheng, Peng, Kuro-o, and Zeng, 2011, Mol. Biol. Evol., 28: 2521–2535, reported on molecular estimates of origin of salamander taxa, suggesting that slow-evolving nuclear loci are better estimators than mtDNA loci. Blackburn and Wake, 2011, In Zhang (ed.), Zootaxa, 3148: 39–55, briefly reviewed the taxonomic history of this taxon. Staniszewski, 2011, Salamand. Newts Eur., N. Afr., W. Asia: 1–160 provided accounts for the European, North African, and West Asian species. Gao and Shubin, 2012, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA: 66–67, summarized the phylogeny of salamanders from the perspective of morphology and including fossil taxa, suggesting some novel relationships. I have tried to follow the substance of the nomenclatural discussions in Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77–161, although have not necessarily followed these authors' taxonomic conclusions, which are nevertheless noted in text, because the nomenclatural approach assume compliance with supernumerary rules not part of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999). Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 32–128, provided accounts, photographs, and maps for the species of China.  Vitt and Caldwell, 2013, Herpetology, 4th Ed., provided a general summary of life history and taxonomy of the group. Shen, Liang, Feng, Chen, and Zhang, 2013, Mol. Biol. Evol., 30: 2235–2248, provided a molecular tree, light on terminals, but very heavy on evidence that suggested a tree of (Cryptobranchidae + Hynobiidae) + (Sirenidae + ((Ambystomatidae + Salamandridae) + (Proteidae + (Rhyacotritonidae + (Amphiumidae + Plethodontidae))). 

Contained taxa (679 sp.):

External links:

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