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Amphibia Blainville, 1816

Class: Amphibia
7332 species

Amphibia Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 194. Heterogenous taxon including amphibians, ectothermic amniotes, and various fishes.

Batraciens Brongniart, 1800, Bull. Sci. Soc. Philomath., Paris, 2: 82. Proposed as an order including frogs and salamanders but excluding caecilians. Regarded as the original use of the name Batrachia by Dubois, 2004, Alytes, 22: 1-14; this view was not accepted by Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 355. DRF reconsidered this position for purposes of this catalogue.

Batrachii Latreille, 1800 "An. VIII", Hist. Nat. Salamand. France: xxxvii. Latinization of Batraciens Brongniart. Regarded as the original use of Batrachia by Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 355, but reconsidered by DRF. (See comment under Batraciens Brongniart, 1800.) Regarded by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept., 1(Amph.): 42, as the original use of the name Batrachiam which under Dubois' rules (not accepted by the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature they attribute to Brongniart, 1800). 

BatrachiaMacartney, 1802, Ross's Translat. Cuvier's Lect. Comp. Anat., 1: table 3. Regarded by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept., 1(Amph.): 42, as a subsequent use of Batrachia Brongniart, 1800, and with the authorship of McCartney and Ross. 

Batracii Duméril, 1805, Zool. Analyt. Meth. Nat. Class. Anim.: 90. Latinization of Batraciens Brongniart, 1800. Treated as an order containing frogs and salamanders.

Batrachia Gravenhorst, 1807, Vergleich. Uebersicht Linn. Neuern Zool. Syst.: 431. Presumably a latinization of Batraciens Brongniart, 1800, but the rank of the name is unclear.

Batracii Oppel, 1811, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 16: 394. Proposed as an order for all living amphibians (Apoda, Ecaudata, and Caudata). Latinization of Batraciens Brongniart, with a redelimitation of content to include caecilians.

Nuda Oppel, 1811, Ordn. Fam. Gatt. Rept.: 76. Oppel, 1811, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 16: 394. Proposed as an order for caecilians, frogs, and salamanders. Attributed to Klein and given as synonymous with Batrachii Brongniart (= Latreille, 1800).

Achelata Fischer von Waldheim, 1813, Zoognosia Tab. Synopt. Ill., Ed. 3, 1: 57. Proposed as an unranked taxon below class and above Batrachii for frogs and salamanders, but excluding caecilians.

Batrachii Fischer von Waldheim, 1813, Zoognosia Tab. Synopt. Ill., Ed. 3, 1: 58. Coined as an unranked taxon (above family-group) for frogs and salamanders, excluding caecilians.

Batrachia Rafinesque, 1814, Specchio Sci., 2, 2: 103. Suggested as an order for salamanders and frogs, but explicitly excluding caecilians.

Amphybiens Blainville, 1816, Bull. Soc. Philomath., Paris, Ser. 3, 3: 115. Explicit class name for all amphibians. Dubois, 2004, Alytes, 22: 1–14, regarded this as the earliest use of Amphibia in the sense of including all living amphibians and allocated fossil relatives. On page 119 (corrected pagination) Blainville surprisingly regards Amphibiens to be an Order to contain Proteus and Siren. Junior homonym of Amphibia Linnaeus, 1758. 

Nudipellifères Blainville, 1816, Bull. Soc. Philomath., Paris, Ser. 3, 3: 115. Non-Latinized class taxon class for amphibians although on page 119 (corrected pagination) he regards this as an alternative name for the subclass Ictyoides or Nuds.

Ictyoides Blainville, 1816, Bull. Soc. Philomath., Paris, Ser. 3, 3: 119. Non-Latinized sub-class taxon name for Amphibians.

Nuds Blainville, 1816, Bull. Soc. Philomath., Paris, Ser. 3, 3: 119. Non-Latinized sub-class taxon name for Amphibians.

Batraciens Blainville, 1816, Bull. Soc. Philomath., Paris, Ser. 3, 3: 119. An explicit ordinal name for frogs.

Dorsipares Blainville, 1816, Bull. Soc. Philomath., Paris, Ser. 3, 3: 119. An explicit subordinal name for an undetermined group of frogs. Presumably for those that carry their eggs on the back.

Aquipares Blainville, 1816, Bull. Soc. Philomath., Paris, Ser. 3, 3: 119. An explicit subordinal name for an undetermined group of frogs, presumably those that lay eggs in the water.

Batrachia Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 163. Coined as a class for all living amphibians: caecilians (Apoda), salamanders (Gradientia), and frogs (Salientia).

Batrachia Leuckart, 1821, Isis von Oken, 9: 259. An explicit family (and therefore an unavailable name) of amphibians containing frogs and salamanders (excluding those in the family Ichthyoidea). See comment under Dipnoa Leuckart, 1821.

Dipnoa Leuckart, 1821, Isis von Oken, 9: 259. Suborder (by implication) composed of Batrachia (a "Familie" composed of frogs [Ecaudata] and salamanders [Caudata]) and Ichthyoidea (a "Familie" composed of Cryptobranchus and Phanerobranchus). Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Class. Rept.: 37, subsequently considered it an order composed of two tribes, Mutabilia and Immutabilia.

Nuda Leuckart, 1821, Isis von Oken, 9: 710. Order for all amphibians. Presumably a secondary usage of Nuda Oppel, 1811.

Amphibia — Macleay, 1821, Horae Entomol., 1(Part 2): 263. Explicit latinization of Amphybiens Blainville. 

Amphibia Gray, 1825, Ann. Philos., London, Ser. 2, 10: 213. Proposed as a class for all modern amphibians; explicitly different content than Amphibia Linnaeus, 1758, or of Latreille, 1825.

Pedata Haworth, 1825, Philos. Mag. J., 65: 372–373. Limbed amphibians, exclusive of Apoda, the caecilians.

Amphibia Latreille, 1825, Fam. Nat. Regne Animal: 103. Proposed as a class to include all amphibians except for caecilians; explicitly different content than Amphibia Linnaeus, 1758, or of Gray, 1825.

Caducibranchia Latreille, 1825, Fam. Nat. Regne Animal: 104. Explicit and heterogenous order to contain amphibians, excluding caecilians and Perennibranchia. Coined to include Latreille's families Anoura and Urodela (salamanders, excluding those in his order Perennibranchia).

Batrachia Wied-Neuwied, 1825, Beitr. Naturgesch. Brasil., 1: 515. Unranked taxon (above order) for frogs and salamanders, excluding caecilians.

Mutabilia Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Class. Rept.: 37. "Tribus" (above the family-group) containing amphibians, both frogs and salamanders, that undergo transformation.

BatracianBarnes, 1826, Am. J. Sci. Arts, 11: 268. Regarded by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept., 1(Amph.): 42, as a subsequent use of Batrachia Brongniart, 1800. 

Caducibranchia Berthold, 1827, Latreille’s Nat. Fam. Thierr.: 102. Explicit order for frogs and salamanders, but explicitly excluding caecilians.

Molgaei Ritgen, 1828, Nova Acta Phys. Med. Acad. Caesar Leopold Carol., Halle, 14: 273. Heterogenous taxon to contain all amphibians and a number of ectothermic amniotes, homonymous with name proposed by same author on page 277.

Dipnoa Wagler, 1828, Isis von Oken, 21: 859. Heterogenous tribe (above order) containing Cordylus (Proteus) [?] and Amphiuma and; by implication, Cryptobranchus.

Ichthyodi Wagler, 1828, Isis von Oken, 21: 859. Heterogenous order, sole member of Dipnoa, containing Cordylus (Proteus) [?] and Amphiuma and; by implication, Cryptobranchus.

Georynchii Wagler, 1828, Isis von Oken, 21: 859. Heterogenous order coined to include caecilians, burrowing lizards, and some snakes.

Astatodipnoa Wagler, 1828, Isis von Oken, 21: 859. Coined as a tribe (above the level of order in this context) to include frogs and salamanders, but excluding caecilians.

Batrachi Wagler, 1828, Isis von Oken, 21: 859. Suggested as an order for frogs and salamanders, but excluding caecilians.Regarded by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept., 1(Amph.): 42, as a subsequent use of Batrachia Brongniart, 1800. 

Batrachia Cuvier, 1831, Animal Kingdom (M'Murtrie), 2: 76. Suggested as an order for salamanders and frogs, but excluding caecilians. Presumably an emendation of Batrachi Wagler, 1828.

Amphipneusta Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 107. Proposed as a "Section" (ca. = order) for nontransforming salamanders (Proteus, Siredon, Menobranchus, Siren, and Amphiuma) as well as caecilians.

Mutabilia Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 99. Order for frogs and transforming salamanders.

Derotreta Van der Hoeven, 1833, Handb. Dierkd., 2: 302. Order to contain caecilians and Amphiuma (including Menopoma).

Dipnoa Van der Hoeven, 1833, Handb. Dierkd., 2: 302. "Section" (above order, below class) containing living amphibians (orders Derotreta, Sozura, and Miura).

Homomorpha Fitzinger, 1835, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 1: 107. Order for salamanders and caecilians.

Cadnabranchia Hogg, 1838, Ann. Nat. Hist., London, 1: 152. Heterogenous order containing Ranidae, Dactylethridae, Astrodactylidae, and Salamandridae.

Monopneumena Hogg, 1838, Ann. Nat. Hist., London, 1: 152. Subclass containing orders Abranchia (caecilians), Cadnabranchia (Ranidae, Dactylethridae, Astrodactylidae, and Salamandridae), and Imperfectibranchia (Menopomatidae).

Batrachi Bonaparte, 1838, Nuovi Ann. Sci. Nat., Bologna, 1: 392. Suggested as a class for all living amphibians. Different rank and more inclusive content than Batrachi Wagler, 1828, and Bonaparte, 1840.

Ranae Bonaparte, 1838, Nuovi Ann. Sci. Nat., Bologna, 1: 392. Order for frogs and transforming salamanders (exludiing Ichthyoidi). Urophora Hogg, 1839, Mag. Nat. Hist., N.S.,, 3: 270. Proposed as an order for tailed Amphibia, including salamanders and caecilians.

Anguiformia Hogg, 1839, Mag. Nat. Hist., N.S.,, 3: 271. Coined explicitly as order for a heterogenous group of amphibians (Caecilia, Amphiuma, Siren, and Parvibranchus).

Tetrapoda Hogg, 1839, Mag. Nat. Hist., N.S.,, 3: 271. Explicit order for Amphibia having four legs (excluding sirens and caecilians).

Arcucadentia Hogg, 1839, Mag. Nat. Hist., N.S., 3: 375. Coined as a tribe (above the family-group level) for a heterogenous group, containing Ranidae, Dactylethridae, Astrodactylidae, and Salamandridae. Sole member of order Caducibranchia Hogg, 1839.

Caducibranchia Hogg, 1839, Mag. Nat. Hist., N.S., 3: 375. Duméril, 1863, Mem. Soc. Imp. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg, 9: 300. Coined as an order, for a taxonomic group identical in content to Cadnabranchia Hogg, 1838.

BatraciaSwainson, 1839, Nat. Hist. Fishes Amph. Rept., 2: 86. Regarded by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept., 1(Amph.): 42, as a subsequent use of Batrachia Brongniart, 1800. 

Dipnoa Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 387, 394. Coined as a subclass for living amphibians.

Batrachia Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 388. Treated as a "Sectio" (below subclass, above order) for living amphibians. Presumably an emendation of Batrachi Bonaparte, 1838.

Prolatibranchia Hogg, 1841, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 1, 7: 361. A "tribe" (in this context a taxon over the level of family-group) of Caducibranchia to contain Hogg's Ranidae, Bufonidae, Dactylethridae, and Salamandridae.

Imperfectibranchia Hogg, 1841, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 1, 7: 362. An order of Diplopneumena to contain Hogg's Menopomidae.

Manentibranchia Hogg, 1841, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 1, 7: 362. An order of Diplopneumena to contain Hogg's Ramibranchia and Fimbranchia (lungfish).

Ramibranchia Hogg, 1841, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 1, 7: 362. A "tribe" (in this context a taxon over the level of family-group) of Manentiabranchia to contain Hogg's Sirenidae and Proteidae.

Ramibranchia Hogg, 1841, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 1, 7: 362. A "tribe" (in this context a taxon over the level of family-group) of Manentiabranchia to contain Hogg's Sirenidae and Proteidae.

Batraciens Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: plate opposite page 53. Nonlatinized ordinal name for the three groups of living amphibians.

Batrachia Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 30. Explicit order containing frogs and salamanders, but excluding caecilians. Explicit subsequent usage, but modified, from Kaup and Brongniart.

Dipnoa Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 31. Explicit subsequent use of Dipnoa Kaup, ranked as a series (above order) for modern amphibians and a few fossils thought to fall into modern groups.

Ichthyodea Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 34. Explicit order redefined in content from that of Wagler, to contain sectio Anura (branchiosaurs and caecilians), Sectio Hemisalamandrae (Megalobatrachi), sectio Derotremata (Salamandropes, Muraenopses), sectio Branchiata (Necturi, and Sirenes).

Anura Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 34. Name coined as a "Section" (above family-group, below order) including Branchiosaurus (temnospondyli) and caecilians. Explicitly different content than that of Anoures Duméril, 1806, and Anuri Fischer von Waldheim, 1813.

Batrachia Leunis, 1844, Synops. Drei Naturr., Zool., Ed. 1: 144. Suggested as an unranked taxon (above family-group) to contain all living amphibians and lungfishes.

Plagiomelea Mayer, 1849, Verh. Naturhist. Ver. Preuss. Rheinlande, 6: 177. Substitute name for Amphibia (living amphibians).

Malacopoda Mayer, 1849, Verh. Naturhist. Ver. Preuss. Rheinlande, 6: 198. Substitute name for Amphibia (living amphibians).

Batrachia Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 3. Order for frogs and transforming salamanders; excluding perennibranch salamanders (Protonopsidae, Amphiumidae, Sirenidae, and Proteidae) and lungfishes.

Batrachia Bonaparte, 1850, Conspect. Syst. Herpetol. Amph.: 1. Explicit subclass for all amphibians and amphisbaenians.

Peromela Bonaparte, 1850, Conspect. Syst. Herpetol. Amph.: 1. Subclass to contain caecilians (Batrachophidii) and Batrachosaurus (Batrachosaurii).

Batraciani Massalongo, 1854, Mem. Accad. Agric. Commerc. Arti Verona, 29: 421. Order for amphibians, although unclear of exact content because report limied to fauna of Verona Province, Italy.

Psiloderma Van der Hoeven, 1855, Handb. Dierkd., Ed. 2, 2: 459. Alternative name for Dipnoa Van der Hoeven, 1833.

Dipnoa Stannius, 1856, Handb. Zootomie Wiebelthiere, 2: 1. Treated as a subclass for living amphibians.

Batrachia Duméril, 1863, Mem. Soc. Imp. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg, 9: 302. Subclass to include frogs and salamanders, but excluding caecilians.

Peromela Duméril, 1863, Mem. Soc. Imp. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg, 9: 303. Subclass for caecilians and a fossil group, Batrachosaurii.

Monopneuma Duméril, 1863, Mem. Soc. Imp. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg, 9: 300. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Monopneumena Hogg, 1838. Contains the order Caducibranchia (caecilians, frogs, and transforming salamanders).

Prolatibranchia Duméril, 1863, Mem. Soc. Imp. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg, 9: 300. "Tribu" (above the level of family-group in context) containing frogs and completely transforming salamanders.

Lissamphibia Haeckel, 1866, Gen. Morphol. Organ., 2: cxxxi. Subclass coined to include frogs and salamanders but to exclude caecilians.

Eubatraciens Gouriet, 1868, Rev. Mag. Zool., Paris, Ser. 2, 20: 206. Non-latinized taxon name to include salamanders and frogs, but excluding caecilians.

Tétramèles Gouriet, 1868, Rev. Mag. Zool., Paris, Ser. 2, 20: 206. Non-latinized taxon name to include Proteidae.

Batrachia Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 1. Class for all living amphibians.

Archaeobatrachi Sarasin and Sarasin, 1890, Ergebn. Naturwiss. Frosch. Ceylon 1884–1886, 2(4): 245. Coined as a subclass of Amphibia for Stegocephali and excluding all living amphibians. Not part of Amphibia in the sense of Gray, 1825.

Neobatrachi Sarasin and Sarasin, 1890, Ergebn. Naturwiss. Frosch. Ceylon 1884–1886, 2(4): 245. Subclass for all living amphibians.

Caeciloidea Sarasin and Sarasin, 1890, Ergebn. Naturwiss. Frosch. Ceylon 1884–1886, 2(4): 245. Suborder for caecilians and Amphiuma.

Lissamphibia Gadow, 1901, Amphibia and Reptiles: 84; Parsons and Williams, 1963, Q. Rev. Biol., 38. Redelimitation of Lissamphibia Haeckel to include all living amphibians.

Euamphibia Moodie, 1909, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 22: 243. Explicit subclass to include modern amphibians and branchiosaurs.

Euamphibia Goodrich, 1930, Stud. Struct. Develop. Vert.: 319. Unranked taxon, above order, for "modern Amphibia", including salamanders, frogs, and caecilians.

Pseudocentrophori Huene, 1948, Spec. Publ. R. Soc. S. Afr.: 65. Order containing salamanders, caecilians, aistopods, and nectridians, but excluding anurans.

Urodelidia Huene, 1956, Palaeontol. Phylog. Nied. Tetrapod.: 15. "Tribus" (above the level of order) containing the ancestor of salamanders and caecilians, and nectridians, but excluding anurans.

Paratoidia Gardiner, 1982, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 74: 228. Proposed to contain salamanders and frogs.

ParatoideaMilner, 1988, in Benton (ed.), Phylogeny Classif. Tetrapods, 1: 81; de Queiroz and Gauthier, 1992, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 23: 474. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Paratoidia Gardiner.

Procera Feller and Hedges, 1998, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 9: 511. Proposed as a superorder to contain salamanders and caecilians.

English Names

Amphibians (Common usage).

Batrachians (Common usage, but technically restricted to salamanders plus frogs).

Distribution

Cosmopolitan except for extreme northern latitudes, Antarctica, and most oceanic islands.

Comment

Duellman and Trueb, 1986, Biol. Amph., and Laurent, 1986, in Grassé and Delsol (eds.), Traite de Zool., 14, provided summaries of biology and taxonomy for the entire group; these are now dated but still useful. Vitt and Caldwell, 2013, Herpetology, 4th Ed., provided a general summary of the evolutionary history, life history, and taxonomy of the group. Iordansky, 1991, Zool. Zh., 70: 50–62, and Iordansky, 1996, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 1: 3–26, on the basis of jaw musculature, suggested that Gymnophiona is the sister taxon of Caudata + Anura; in these papers this author also provided an introduction to the literature of amphibian comparative anatomy. Laurin and Reisz, 1997, in Sumida and Martin (eds.), Amniote Origins: 9–59, discussed amphibian relationships as did Zardoya and Meyer, 2000, Genetics, 155: 765–775, Vasil'eva and Smirnov, 2001, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Biol., 376 (and in English transation by Vasil'eva and Smirnov, 2001, Dokl. Biol. Sci., 376: 89–90), and Milner, 1988, in Benton (ed.), Phylogeny Classif. Tetrapods, 1: 59–102. Laurin, 1998, Ann. Sci. Nat., Paris, Ser. 13, 19: 1–42, discussed the morphological evidence for the origin of living Amphibia (Lissamphibia sensu Parsons and Williams, 1963, Q. Rev. Biol., 38). McGowan, 2002, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 135: 1–32, suggested on the basis of morphological evidence, mostly focusing on fossils, that living amphibians are imbedded within Temnospondyli. Laurin, 2002, Syst. Biol., 51: 364–369, responded to a phylogenetic analysis of tetrapods by Anderson, 2001, Syst. Biol., 50: 170–193, which suggested that living Amphibia are paraphyletic with respect to Amniota. Marjanovic and Laurin, 2007, Syst. Biol., 56: 369–388, discussed in some detail the origin of lissamphibians and the phylogenetic position of various fossil groups not addressed by this catalog. Anderson, Reisz, Scott, Fröbisch, and Sumida, 2008, Nature, 453: 515–519, discussed evidence for the origin of Batrachia within Temnospondyli, and the position of Gymnophiona within Lepospondyli. Carroll, 2007, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 150 (Supp. 1): 1–140, discussed the palaeozoic ancestry of salamanders, frogs, and caecilians. Schoch and Milner, 2004, in Arratia et al. (eds.), Recent Adv. Origin Early Radiat. Vert.: 345–377, Lebedkina, 2004, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 9: 1–265. Anderson, 2008, Evol. Biol., 35: 231–247, and Marvanović and Laurin, 2009, Evol. Biol., 36: 336–338, supplied an interchange that speaks to the ongoing controversies regarding the origin of lissamphibians, with the current evidence pointing to its monophyly. Carroll, 2009, The Rise of Amph., reviewed the paleontology of amphibians; this was criticized in detail by Laurin, 2010, Herpetol. Rev., 41: 119–123.Marjanovic and Laurin, 2008, Contrib. Zool., Amsterdam, 77: 149–199, reevaluated these data and came to the conclusion that living amphibians are nested with the lepospondyls. Marjanovic and Laurin, 2013, Geodiversitas, 35: 207–272.  Pyron, 2011, Syst. Biol., 60: 466–481, renanalyzed Laurin's fossil data along with genbank sequence data and not surprising came to the same conclusions regarding the origin of lissamphibians from lepospondyls. He also did not recover evidence for the monophyly of salamanders with respect to frogs and caecilians. Sigurdsen and Green, 2011, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 162: 457–469, reviewed previous phylogenetic studies focused on the lepospondyl or temnospondyl origin of living amphibians, combined the data of the disparate studies and supported a temnospondyl origin. Liu, Wang, and Zhou, 2004, Zool. Res., Kunming, 25: 185–190, discussed the phylogeny of living amphibian groups on the basis of tRNA study as did Hu, Nie, Zheng, and Zhang, 2006, Life Sci. Res., 10: 252–256. Hoegg, Vences, Brinkmann, and Meyer, 2004, Mol. Biol. Evol., 21: 1188–1200, discussed living amphibian phylogeny within the evidentiary framework of three nuclear genes. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297, discussed the various meanings of the name "Amphibia", equated Amphibia to Lissamphibia of recent authors, provided a review of taxonomic literature, and revised all living Amphibia to the level of genus. Roelants, Gower, Wilkinson, Loader, Biju, Guillaume, Moriau, and Bossuyt, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 887–892, on the basis of a moderately different molecular dataset and a different analytical method found moderately similar results that were used to interpret biogeographic history. Igawa, Kurabayashi, Usuki, Fujii, and Sumida, 2008, Gene, 407: 116–129, reported on divergence times of the major constituent taxa. San Mauro, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 56: 554–561, provided a multilocus analysis of the age and relationships of major amphibian groups. An illuminating essay on the early classific ation of amphibians was provided by Hogg, 1841, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 1, 7: 353–363. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543–583, in the largest phylogenetic study of amphibians so far largely corroborated the results of earlier authors, although they could not confirm the sister-taxon relationship of Caudata + Gymnophiona. Blackburn and Wake, 2011, In Zhang (ed.), Zootaxa, 3148: 39–55, provided a brief summary of the literature of the systematics of this taxon. (See also the corrigenda for this paper at Blackburn and Wake, 2012, Zootaxa, 3381: 45–46). Chen, Wang, Liu, Xie, and Jiang, 2011, Curr. Zool., Chengdu, 57: 785–805, discussed the mitochondrial genome types among the major groups of amphibians and provided a tree of 145 species based on 11 protein-coding genes, which confirmed the placement of Gymnophiona as the sister taxon of Caudata + Anura.  Meng, Tao, Murphy, and Li, 2013, Acta Zootaxon. Sinica, 38: 679–686, discussed the biogeography of Chinese amphibians with respect to plate tectonics. See Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept., 1(Amph.): 41-42, for a discussion of the authorship of this taxon rooted in a set of rules devised by Alain Dubois and not adopted by the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature. Padial, Grant, and Frost, 2014, Zootaxa, 3825: 1–132, provided a taxonomic review of the systematics of Brachycephaloidea (Brachycephalidae, Craugastoridae, and Eleutherodactylidae).  Frétey, Dewynter, and Blanc, 2011: 1–232, provided brief characterizations of habitat and identification information for the species of Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. 

Contained taxa (7332 sp.):

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