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Necturus maculosus (Rafinesque, 1818)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Proteidae > Genus: Necturus > Species: Necturus maculosus

Sirena maculosa Rafinesque, 1818, Am. Month. Mag. Crit. Rev., 4: 41. Type(s): Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: "Found in the Ohio [River]", USA.

Proteus tetradactylus Green, 1818, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1: 358. Nomen nudum. Synonymy with Triton lateralis by Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 209. Synonymy by Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 97 (under Menobranchus lateralis); Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 66.

Necturus maculatusRafinesque, 1819, J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts, 88: 417. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Necturus maculosusRafinesque, 1820, Ann. Nat., Lexington, 1: 4.

Necturus luteus Rafinesque, 1820, Ann. Nat., Lexington, 1: 4. Type(s): Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: "the Ohio [River]", USA. Synonymy by Baird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 291; Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 67. Regarded as a nomen nudum by Brame, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 36.

Necturus phosphoreus Rafinesque, 1820, Ann. Nat., Lexington, 1: 4. Type(s): Not designated. Type locality: "the Ohio [River]", USA. Synonymy by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 67. Regarded as a nomen nudum by Brame, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 36.

Phanerobranchus tetradactylus Leuckart, 1821, Isis von Oken, 9: 260. Based on "Sal. tetradactylus Lacep.", an unpublished name, not Proteus tetradactylus Green. Types: Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: Not designated. Presumably a substitute name for "Salamandra tetradactylus Lacepede". Provisionally placed in this synonymy although the diagnosis "Pedibus quatuor, omnibus tetradactylis" is insufficient to place the animal taxonomically—DRF.

Triton lateralis Say In James, 1822, Account Exped. Pittsburgh–Rocky Mts., 1: 5 (Philadelphia edition). Type(s): Not stated, although originally likely in the Philadelphia Mus. (not ANSP) and possibly now in MCZ. Type locality: "neighborhood of Pittsburgh", Pennsylvania, USA. Synonymy by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 67; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 84.

Menobranchus lateralisHarlan, 1825, Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. New York, 1: 233; Leunis, 1844, Synops. Drei Naturr., Zool., Ed. 1: 148.

Menobranchus tetradactylusHarlan, 1825, Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. New York, 1: 233.

Menobranchus sayii Gray, 1825, Ann. Philos., London, Ser. 2, 10: 216. Type(s): Not stated, although presumably originally in BMNH. Type locality: Not stated. Synonymy by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 67; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 84.

Phanerobranchus cepedii Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Class. Rept.: 66. Type(s): Not stated, but presumably originally in NHMW although not noted in recent type lists. Type locality: North America. A substitute name for "Proteus tetradactylus Lacepede". Synonymy by Baird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 291; Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 65; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 84.

Necturus tetradactylusWagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 210.

Necturus lateralisWagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 210; Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 198.

Menobranchus lacepedii Gray In Cuvier, 1831, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9: 108. Substitute name for Phanerobranchus cepedii Fitzinger, 1826.

Hemitriton (Menobranchus) tetradactylusVan der Hoeven, 1833, Handb. Dierkd., 2: 305, by implication.

Menobranchus maculatusHolbrook, 1842, N. Am. Herpetol., Ed. 2, 5: 111.

Proteus canadensis Hodgkins, 1856, Canad. J. Indust. Sci. Art, 1: 22. Holotype: In the "Provincial Museum in the Normal School Building" (presumably now part of the ROM). Type locality: "Bay of Toronto, Lake Ontario", Ontario, Canada. Synonymy by XXX.

Siredon hyemalis Kneeland, 1857, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 6: 152. Syntypes: Desposition not noted or known to exist. Type locality: "Lake Superior . . . . Portage Lake", presumably in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA. Synonymy by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 13.

Necturus maculatusBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 84.

Menobranchus latastei Garnier, 1888, Proc. Canad. Inst., Toronto, Ser. 3, 5: 218. Syntypes: Not stated; including USNM 22331-32 according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 16. Type locality: "Maitland river", Ontario, Canada. Synonymy by Cope IN Garnier, 1888, Proc. Canad. Inst., Toronto, Ser. 3, 5: 218.

Necturus lateralis var. latastei —Cope In Garnier, 1888, Proc. Canad. Inst., Toronto, Ser. 3, 5: 218.

Necturus maculosus maculosusBrimley, 1924, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 40: 167.

Necturus maculosus stictus Bishop, 1941, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 451: 9. Holotype: UMMZ 89765, by original designation. Type locality: "Lake Winnebago, Wisconsin", USA.

Necturus maculosus louisianensisSchmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 13.

Necturus maculosus walkeri Brode, 1970, Dissert. Abstr. Internatl., Ser. B, 30: 5288. Types: Not designated. Type locality: "north-central Alabama", USA. Nomen nudum.

Necturus (Necturus) maculosusDubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 147.

English Names

Banded Proteus (Menobranchus lateralis [no longer recognized]: De Kay, 1842, Zool. New York, 1: 87).

Lake Siren (Necturus lateralis [no longer recognized]: Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 20).

Proteus (Necturus lateralis [no longer recognized]: Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 20; ).

Water Dog (Necturus maculosus: Brimley, 1907, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 23: 150).

Water-dog (Necturus lateralis [no longer recognized]: Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 198; Davis and Rice, 1883, Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1: 26).

Waterdog (Necturus maculatus: Hay, 1892, Annu. Rep. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Indiana for 1891: 418).

Gilled Salamander (Necturus maculatus: Hay, 1892, Annu. Rep. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Indiana for 1891: 418).

Waterdog (Necturus maculosus: Stejneger and Barbour, 1917, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept.: 5; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 13; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174).

Mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus: Rhoads, 1895, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 47: 406; Stejneger and Barbour, 1917, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept.: 5; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 13; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 7; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 34; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 25; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 28).

Mud-puppy (Necturus lateralis [no longer recognized]: Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 198; Davis and Rice, 1883, Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1: 26).

Common Mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus: Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 8; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 15).

Common Mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus maculosus: Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 25; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 19; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 28).

Waterdog (Necturus maculosus maculosus: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 40; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 13).

Mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus maculosus: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 40; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 13; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 7; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 34).

Wisconsin Mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus stictus: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 43).

Lake Winnebago Mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus stictus: Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 13; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 175; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 7).

Louisiana Mudpuppy (Necturus louisanensis: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 32).

Distribution

Southeastern Manitoba east to southern Quebec, Canada, south on the western versant of the Appalachians to central Louisiana, eastern Oklahoma, eastern Kansas, and eastern Iowa, USA.

Comment

See Walley, 2002, Herpetol. Rev., 33: 60, for discussion of Iowa population. Williams and Corey, 2007, Herpetol. Rev., 38: 472, provided a record for the New River drainage of North Carolina and briefly discussed its range in that region. Hanke, 2008, Herpetol. Rev., 39: 231, provided a northern range extension in Manitoba, Canada. Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 425–429, provided an account that treated Necturus louisianensis as a subspecies. 

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