Bolitoglossa Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Plethodontidae > Subfamily: Hemidactyliinae > Genus: Bolitoglossa
132 species

Oedipus Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 58. Type species: Salamandra platydactylus Gray, 1831, by monotypy. Preoccupied by Oedipus Berthold, 1827 (Orthoptera). Placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology by Anonymous, 1962, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 19: 142-144.

Bolitoglossa Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 88. Type species: Bolitoglossa mexicana Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, by subsequent designation of Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 30: 218.

Eladinea Miranda-Ribeiro, 1937, O Campo, 8: 42. Type species: Eladinea estheri Miranda-Ribeiro, 1937 (= Bolitoglossa paraensis), by monotypy. Synonymy by Myers and Carvalho, 1945, Bol. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, N.S., Zool., 35: 1–24.

Magnadigita Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 30: 218. Type species: Bolitoglossa nigroflavescens Taylor, 1941, by original designation. Synonymy by Wake and Brame, 1963, Copeia, 1963: 382–387, and Wake and Brame, 1969, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 175: 1–40. Considered a subgenus of Bolitoglossa by Parra-Olea, García-París, and Wake, 2004, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 81: 336.

Palmatotriton Smith, 1945, Ward’s Nat. Sci. Bull., 19: 4. Type species: Oedipus rufescens Cope, 1869, by monotypy. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature placed Palmatotriton Smith, 1945, on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology—by Anonymous, 1956, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 14: 243–256 (Opinion 425, published 12 October 1956). Synonymy by XXX.

Nanotriton Parra-Olea, García-París, and Wake, 2004, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 81: 335. Type species: Oedipus rufescens Cope, 1869, by original designation. Coined as a subgenus of Bolitoglossa Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854.

Oaxakia Parra-Olea, García-París, and Wake, 2004, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 81: 336. Type species: Oedipus macrinii Lafrentz, 1930. Coined as a subgenus of Bolitoglossa Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854.

Pachymandra Parra-Olea, García-París, and Wake, 2004, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 81: 336. Type species: Spelerpes dofleini Werner, 1903. Coined as a subgenus of Bolitoglossa Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854.

Mayamandra Parra-Olea, García-París, and Wake, 2004, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 81: 337. Type species: Bolitoglossa hartwegi Wake and Brame, 1969. Coined as a subgenus of Bolitoglossa Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854.

English Names

Mushroomtongue Salamanders (Liner, 1994, Herpetol. Circ., 23: 10).

Mushroom-tongued Salamanders (Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 28).

Tropical Lungless Salamanders (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 29).

Distribution

Northeastern Mexico through central and southern Mexico, Central America, and in Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, northeastern Brazil, and to central Bolivia.

Comment

Species group assignments in comments are those of Wake and Lynch, 1976, Sci. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 25: 57, and Elias, 1984, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 348: 1-20. Wake and Elias, 1983, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 345: 10, commented on the alpha and beta groups proposed by Wake and Lynch, 1976, Sci. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 25. Wake and Lynch, 1982, Herpetologica, 38: 257–272, and Wake and Lynch, 1988, Herpetologica, 44: 105–108, discussed relationships and biogeography within the Bolitoglossa franklini group. Larson, 1983, Herpetologica, 39: 85–99, discussed relationships of the Bolitoglossa dunni, Bolitoglossa morio, Bolitoglossa rufescens, Bolitoglossa dofleini, Bolitoglossa franklini, and Bolitoglossa veraecrucis groups, and reviewed the literature of Bolitoglossa systematics. Papenfuss, Wake, and Adler, 1984 "1983", J. Herpetol., 17: 295–307, discussed the systematics of the Bolitoglossa macrinii group. McCranie and Wilson, 1993, Herpetologica, 49: 1–15, reviewed the Bolitoglossa dunni group. García-París, Parra-Olea, and Wake, 2000, in Bruce et al., Biol. Plethodontid Salamanders: 199–214, reported on phylogenetics of the Bolitoglossa mexicana group. Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 127–139, provide accounts and keys to the species of Costa Rica. McCranie and Wilson, 2002, Amph. Honduras: 95-135, provided a key and accounts for the species of Honduras. Parra-Olea, García-París, and Wake, 2002, J. Herpetol., 36: 356-366, discussed phylogeny within the Bolitoglossa macrinii group. García-París, Parra-Olea, Brame, and Wake, 2002, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 16: 43–71, revised the Bolitoglossa mexicana group. Parra-Olea, García-París, and Wake, 2004, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 81: 325–346, provided a phylogenetic analysis of the species, and formulated a subgeneric taxonomy reflected in the synonymies: Bolitoglossa was treated as a subgenus for the former Bolitoglossa mexicana species group; Nanotriton for the Bolitoglossa rufescens group, Eladinea for the redelimited Bolitoglossa palmata, Bolitoglossa epimela, Bolitoglossa schizodactyla, and Bolitoglossa adspersa groups; Magnadigita for the the redelimited Bolitoglossa rostrata, Bolitoglossa franklini, and Bolitoglossa dunni groups; Oaxakia for the former Bolitoglossa macrinii group; Pachymandra for the monotypic Bolitoglossa alvaradoi and Bolitoglossa dofleini groups; Mayamandra for the former Bolitoglossa veraepacis group. Wiens, Parra-Olea, García-París, and Wake, 2007, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B, Biol. Sci., 274: 918–928, confirmed the monophyly of Bolitoglossa and placed it as the sister taxon of Pseudoeurycea (which they treated as a paraphyletic taxon leading to Ixalotriton and a polyphyletic Lineatriton). Campbell, Smith, Streicher, Acevedo, and Brodie, 2010, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 200: iv + 60, reported on phylogenetics of Guatemalan species. In the tribe Bolitoglossini of Vieites, Román, Wake, and Wake, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 59: 633. Acevedo-Rincón, Wake, Márquez, Silva-Pérez, Franco-Pallares, and Amézquita, 2013, Zootaxa, 3609: 69–84, provided a distribution map and tree of relationships of the membes of the subgenus Eladinea. Rovito, Parra-Olea, Vázquez-Almazán, Luna-Reyes, and Wake, 2012, BMC Evol. Biol., 12(255): 1–16, discussed phylogenetic and biogeographi relationships of the members of the subgenus Nanotriton in southern Mexico and Nuclear Central America. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 49–69, provided a key, a very brief characterizations and dot maps of the species of Central America. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 40–69, provided a brief summary of natural history, a key to the species of Central America, and range maps and photographs of the species. Batista, Köhler, Mebert, and Vesely, 2014, Mesoam. Herpetol., 1: 103, provided a 16S mtDNA maximum-likelihood tree for the Bolitoglossa adspersa group. Elmer, Bonett, Wake, and Lougheed, 2013, BMC Evol. Biol., 13(59): 1–16, reported on the phylogenetics of South American species (although providing a general tree for the entire genus), discussed biogeography, and detected several unnamed species. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 306–360, provided brief accounts of the species, photographs, and range maps and discussed the results of the Elmer et al. (2013) paper among others.

Contained taxa (132 sp.):

External links:

Please note: these links will take you to external websites not affiliated with the American Museum of Natural History. We are not responsible for their content.