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Theloderma Tschudi, 1838

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Rhacophoridae > Subfamily: Rhacophorinae > Genus: Theloderma
23 species

Theloderma Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 32, 75. Type species: Theloderma leporosa Tschudi, 1838, by monotypy.

Phrynoderma Boulenger, 1893, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, Ser. 2, 13: 341. Type species: Phrynoderma asperum Boulenger, 1893, by monotypy. Synonymy by Taylor, 1962, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43: 519.

English Names

Bug-eyed Frogs (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 114; Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 72).

Warty Treefrogs (Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 72).

Distribution

Sri Lanka; northeastern India to Myanmar and southern China through Indochina to Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo.

Comment

See comments under Theloderma moloch and Nyctixalus. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, and Green, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 139, considered Theloderma to be the sister taxon of Philautus. Orlov, Dutta, Ghate, and Kent, 2006, Russ. J. Herpetol., 13: 155-163, provided a brief discussion of the genus. Yu, Rao, Zhang, and Yang, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 50: 571-579, considered Theoderma to form the sister taxon of Nyctixalus and, together, all rhacophorids excluding Liuixalus and Buergeria. Li, Che, Murphy, Zhao, Zhao, Rao, and Zhang, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 53: 509-522, suggested on the basis of molecular evidence that Theloderma as currently constructed is not monophyletic. Rowley, Le, Hoang, Dau, and Cao, 2011, Zootaxa, 3098: 1-20, reviewed the diagnoses of the species as well as the molecular data provided so far ads suggested that the inclusion of Theloderma moloch (provided the published DNA sequences are correctly referred to this species) renders Theloderma nonmonophyletic, as does the inclusion of nominal Nyctixalus pictus (and likely all of Nyctixalus) high up within the Theloderma clade. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543-583, provided a tree of examplar species as part of their study of Genbank sequences, and confirmed the polyphyly of Theloderma (due to the placement of Theloderma moloch distant from the remaining species). Li, Li, Klaus, Rao, Hillis, and Zhang, 2013, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 110: 34413446, also confirmed the sister-taxon relationship of Theloderma and Nyctixalus; in their tree of Theloderma moloch was imbedded within Theloderma, suggesting analytical error in the Pyron and Wiens (2011) work, or misidentified genbank sequences. 

Contained taxa (23 sp.):

External links:

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