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Raorchestes Biju, Shouche, Dubois, Dutta, and Bossuyt, 2010
Raorchestes Biju, Shouche, Dubois, Dutta, and Bossuyt, 2010, Curr. Sci., Bangalore, 98: 1120. Type species: Ixalus glandulosus Jerdon, 1854, by original designation.
Southern India to Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand, and Laos to southern China, Vietnam, Cambodia, and West Malaysia.
Raochestes was considered in the original publication (Biju, Shouche, Dubois, Dutta, and Bossuyt, 2010, Curr. Sci., Bangalore, 98: 1120) to be the sister taxon of a restricted Pseudophilautus, which was considered to be restricted to Sri Lanka. Li, Che, Murphy, Zhao, Zhao, Rao, and Zhang, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 53: 509 -522, had considered Pseudophilautus to encompass all species including in Pseudophilautus and Raorchestes sensu Biju, Shouche, Dubois, Dutta, and Bossuyt, 2010, so the issue of reciprocal monophyly is critical to the concept of both genera. Li, Che, Murphy, Zhao, Zhao, Rao, and Zhang, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 53: 509 -522, and Yu, Rao, Zhang, and Yang, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 50: 571-579, produced results consistent with the recognition of both Raoarchestes and Pseudophilautus. See comment under Pseudophilautus. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543-583, provided a tree of examplar species as part of their study of Genbank sequences, confirmed the placement of a monophyletic Raorchestes as the sister taxon of Pseudophilautus, but employed an antiquated taxonomy that obscures this result. Li, Li, Klaus, Rao, Hillis, and Zhang, 2013, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 110: 3441–3446, suggested on the basis of a Bayesian analysis that Raorchestes is the sister taxon of Kurixalus. This makes for novel ideas of the evolution of direct-development (see comment under Pseudophilautus). Padhye, Sayyed, Jadhav, and Dahanukar, 2013, J. Threatened Taxa, 5: 4913–4931, provided a tree of the species based on 16s rRNA sequences. Vijayakumar, Dinesh, Prabhu, and Shanker, 2014, Zootaxa, 3893: 451–488, reported on relationships within the Western Ghats, named nine species, and recognized 15 clades of species within the Western Ghats complex: 1) Coonoorensis clade: comprising two lineages, Raorchestes coonoorensis and an unnamed deeply divergent sister lineage complex; 2) Charius clade: comprised of two lineages, Raorchestes charius and a shallow divergent unnamed lineage; 3) Chromasynchysi clade: comprised of Raorchestes chromasynchysi and four shallow divergent lineages, including Raorchestes aff. ravii; 4) Tinniens clade: comprised of four lineages, Raorchestes tinniens, Raorchestes montanus and two sympatric shallow divergent potential lineages, one unnamed and the other being Raorchestes primarrumpfi; 5) Signatus clade: comprising three lineages including Raorchestes signatus and two moderately divergent unnamed lineages; 6) Hassanensis clade: comprising two shallow divergent potential lineages: Raorchestes ponmudi, Raorchestes hassanensis and Raorchestes emeraldi; 7) Bombayensis clade: comprised of five lineages including Raorchestes bombayensis, Raorchestes tuberohumerus, Raorchestes ghatei, Raorchestes aff. terebrans from Eastern Ghats Escarpment, and Raorchestes leucolatus;. 8) Travancoricus clade: comprised of six lineages including Raorchestes travancoricus, Raorchestes luteolus, Raorchestes agasthyaensis, Raorchestes kadalarensis, Raorchestes chlorosomma, and a deeply divergent unnamed lineage; 9) Anili clade: comprised of five lineages including Raorchestes anili, Raorchestes sushili, Raorchestes kakachi, Raorchestes kaikatti and an unnamed divergent lineage; 10) Ochlandrae clade: comprised of five lineages including Raorchestes ochlandrae, Raorchestes chalazodes, Raorchestes manohari, Raorchestes uthamani and Raorchestes flaviocularis;. 11) Beddomii clade: comprised of seven lineages including Raorchestes beddomii, Raorchestes munnarensis, Raorchestes theurkaufi, Raorchestes dubois, Raorchestes resplendens and two shallow divergent unnamed lineages; 12) Chotta clade: comprised of three deeply divergent lineages, Raorchestes chotta, Raorchestes archeos, and Raorchestes blandus; 13) Nerostagona clade: comprised of Raorchestes nerostagona and an unnamed sister lineage; 14) Graminirupes clade: comprised of Raorchestes graminirupes, Raorchestes johnceei, and an unnamed divergent lineage; and 15) Glandulosus clade: comprised of four deeply divergent lineages, Raorchestes glandulosus, Raorchestes akroparallagi, Raorchestes jayarami, Raorchestes bobingeri and a shallow divergent unnamed lineage.
Contained taxa (60 sp.):
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