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Chiromantis Peters, 1854
Chiromantis Peters, 1854, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1854: 626. Type species: Chiromantis xerampelina Peters, 1854, by monotypy.
Chirixalus Boulenger, 1893, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, Ser. 2, 13: 340. Type species: Chirixalus doriae Boulenger, 1893, by monotypy. Synonymy by Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 246.
Foam Nest Frogs (Passmore and Carruthers, 1979, S. Afr. Frogs: 200; Lambiris, 1990 "1989", Monogr. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino, 10: 139; Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 334; Du Preez and Carruthers, 2009, Compl. Guide Frogs S. Afr.: 456).
Striped Asian Treefrogs (Chirixalus [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 111).
Burmese Bushfrogs (Chirixalus [no longer recognized]: Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 146).
Asian Treefrogs (Chirixalus [no longer recognized]: Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 29
African tropics, south of the Sahara; Southeast Asia (northeastern India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, China) south to peninsular Malaysia and Sabah in Borneo.
See Werner, 1923, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 72: 62–66, and accounts for African species in Schiøtz, 1999, Treefrogs Afr.: 35–41. Poynton, 2000, Afr. J. Herpetol., 49: 125, suggested that unnamed species of Chiromantis exist in Somalia and that careful systematic studies are needed. The Asian species were formerly assigned to Chirixalus, a taxon that was shown to be paraphyletic with respect to African Chiromantis by Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 246. This result was corroborated by Wiens, Sukumaran, Pyron, and Brown, 2009, Evolution, 63: 1217–1231. Li, Che, Murphy, Zhao, Zhao, Rao, and Zhang, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 53: 509–522, suggested on the basis of molecular evidence that Chiromantis as currently constructed is paraphyletic with respect to Feihyla. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543–583, did obtain a monophyletic Chiromantis, with somewhat greater taxon and locus sampling in their molecular study; they found Chiromantis as the sister of a taxon of Ghatixalus, a taxon not included by Li et al., 2009. Li, Li, Klaus, Rao, Hillis, and Zhang, 2013, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 110: 3441–3446, found on the basis of a Bayesian analysis Chiromantis to be monophyletic and the sister taxon of a large group composed of Feihyla, Ghatixalus, Taruga, Polypedates, and Rhacophorus. Aowphol, Rujirawan, Taksintum, Arsirapot, and McLeod, 2013, Zootaxa, 3702: 101–123, reported on the molecular phylogenetics of the Chiromantis in Thailand and provided weak evidence for the polyphyly of the taxon, with Chiromantis hansenae and Chiromantis vittatus being more closely related to Feihyla, Rhacophorus, and Polypedates, and Chiromantis doriae and Chiromantis nonghkorensis being outside of this clade.
Contained taxa (15 sp.):
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