Pelophylax ridibundus (Pallas, 1771)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Ranidae > Genus: Pelophylax > Species: Pelophylax ridibundus

Rana esculenta Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 212. Type(s): By indication including the frogs illustrated by Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost.: 51, pl. 13, 14, and frontispiece; specimen not know to exist according to Lönnberg, 1896, Bih. K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 22: 1–45, and Andersson, 1900, Bih. K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 26: 1–29. The only surviving type specimen is actually a specimen of Rana arvalis according to Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 143, and who first noted that the the specimen illustrated as Rana viridis aquaticae Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost.: pl. 13, should be considered a syntype and so designated the specimen illustrated as the lectotype of the taxon. Type locality: "In Europae fontibus"; restricted to "Mitteldeutschland" (= central Germany) by Mertens and Müller, 1928, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 41: 19; restricted to "Nürnberg", Germany, by Mertens and Müller, 1940, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 451: 18, and by lectotype designation of Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 143–144. A Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana viridis Linnaeus, 1761, Fauna Svec.: 102. Reported by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 160, as an unavailable name published as a synonym of Rana esculenta. The name actually reported by Linnaeus is non-binomial, Rana viridis aquatica attributed to Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost.: 51, pl. 13. Synonymy by Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 12, and Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 160. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana ridibunda Pallas, 1771, Reise Vers. Prov. Russ. Reich, 1: 458. Type(s): Not stated. Type locality: "versus mare Caspium; Volgae et Iaico" (= opposite to the Caspian Sea, Volga, and on the Yaik [= Ural] River), Russia and Kazakhstan; restricted to "Gurjew [= Guryev, Kazakhstan], Nord Küste des Kaspischen Meeres" by Mertens and Müller, 1928, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 41: 20; to legitimize this restriction Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 139, suggested that a neotype designation be made from this locality.

Rana vulgaris Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 457. Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: Table following page 618 and referencing account starting on page 503. Replacement name for Rana esculenta Linnaeus, 1758. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen. Rejected as published in a nonbinominal work by Opinion 2104, Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: 55.

Rana gigas Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., Ed. 13, 1(3): 1053. Types: Not stated or known to exist; Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 150, suggested that a neotype was needed to stabilize nomenclature. Type locality: "Persia" = Iran. Synonymy by Eichwald, 1842, Nouv. Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 7: 159 (as Rana cachinnans); Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 119; Mertens and Wermuth, 1960, Amph. Rept. Europas: 57. See discussion by Smith, Schneider, and Smith, 1977, J. Herpetol., 11: 423–425. Preoccupied by Rana gigas Wallbaum, 1784 (= Bufo marinus).

Bufo ridibundusBonnaterre, 1789, Tab. Encyclop. Method. Trois Reg. Nat., Erp.: 15. Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 226.

Rana persica Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 149. Substitute name for Rana gigas Gmelin, 1789.

Rana cachinnans Pallas, 1814 "1831", Zoograph. Rosso-Asiat. Sist. Omn. Animal.: 15. Types: Not stated or known to exist; adult figured in Pallas, 1842, Icon. Zoograph. Rosso-Asiat.: pl. 1, fig 2, designated lectotype by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 150, Type locality: Around the Caspian Sea, on the lower Volga and in all the small rivers and ponds of the Chersones Tauricus [= Crimea]; restricted by lectotype designation to "Krymskij Poluostrov (Crimea), Ukraine". Synonymy by Eichwald, 1842, Nouv. Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 7: 159 (as Rana cachinnans). Synonymy (with Rana esculenta) by Günther, 1864, Rept. Brit. India: 408; Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 118; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 38. Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 270, allied this form with what is now Rana ridibunda.

Rana caucasica Pallas, 1814 "1831", Zoograph. Rosso-Asiat. Sist. Omn. Animal.: 7. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: Caucasus, along the itinerary of Güldenstadt's travels, according to Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 154. A junior synonym of Rana cachinnans under first revisor principle (Camerano, 1882 "1881", C. R. Assoc. Franç. Avanc. Sci., Paris, 10: 687). Synonymy (with Rana esculenta) by Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 119, and Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 38. Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 270, allied this form with what is now Rana ridibunda. Considered to have been based on specimens of both Rana ridibunda and Bufo verrucosissimus by Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 238. Synonymy with Pelophylax ridibunda by Litvinchuk, Borkin, Skorinov, and Rosanov, 2008, Russ. J. Herpetol., 15: 20.

Rana bufoides Güldenstadt In Pallas, 1814 "1831", Zoograph. Rosso-Asiat. Sist. Omn. Animal.: 15. Unavailable name published as a synonym, according to Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 154. Synonymy, with Rana caucasica, by Pallas, 1814 "1831", Zoograph. Rosso-Asiat. Sist. Omn. Animal.: 15.

Ranaria esculentaRafinesque, 1814, Specchio Sci., 2, 2: 102. Based on misidentified specimens from Sicily.

Rana alpina Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Class. Rept.: 64. Type(s): Not stated although presumably in NHMW. Type locality: "Alpen R. Ex Europa, Asutria et Styria". Nomen nudum. Preoccupied by Rana alpina Laurenti. Synonymy with XXX by XXX. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana hispanica Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Class. Rept.: 64. Type(s): Not designated, presumably originally NHMW. Type locality: "Spanische R. Ex. Euopa, Hispania". Nomen nudum.

Rana maritima Risso, 1826, Hist. Nat. Principales Product. Eur. Merid., 3: 92. Types: Not stated or known to exist; Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 155, suggested that a neotype designation was needed to avoid nomenclaturally threatening Rana perezi and Rana lessonae. Type locality: "Marais des bords de la mer" = marshes near the Mediterranean sea in the department of Alpes Maritimes, France. Synonymy by Bonaparte, 1838, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 22): 123; Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 443, Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 345; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 12; Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 119; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 38. See comment. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana bosci Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1828, Résumé Herpetol. Hist. Nat. Rept.: 266. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "marais de la Camargue, à l'embouchure du Rhône" [= Marshes of Camargue, Bouches-du-Rhône, France]. Placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific Names in Zoology by Anonymous, 1962, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 19: 280. Synonymy with Rana maritima by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 156. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana viridis Eichwald, 1830, Naturhist. Skizze Lithuanien: 234. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type localities: Volhynien, Podolien [southern Ukraine]. Nomen nudum. Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 156. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana esculenta var. tigrina Eichwald, 1831, Zool. Special.: 166. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: Persia [= Iran]. Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 156. Preoccupied by Rana tigrina Merrem, 1820 (= Rana tigerina Linnaeus, 1758).

Bufo caucasicusEichwald, 1831, Zool. Special.: 167. Based on misidentifications.

Rana dentex Krynicki, 1837, Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 10: 63. Syntypes: Presumably lost; lectotype designated by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 157, as the specimen figured in pl. 2 and described on page 65 of the original paper by Krynicki. Vedmederya, Zinenko, and Barabanov, 2009, Russ. J. Herpetol., 16: 205, noted two surviving syntypes and designated one, MNKNU 26237 as lectotype by Vedmederya, Zinenko, and Barabanov, 2009, Russ. J. Herpetol., 16: 205. Type localities: "Caucasus in amne Podkumok [= Pyatigorsk]. . . Adj. Kaleniczenkow—in lacu arundine tecto . . . in circuitu Stauropolis" = River Podkumok near 'Kaleniczenkow'—reed-covered lake near Stavropol, Russia; restricted to river Podkumok by Mertens and Wermuth, 1960, Amph. Rept. Europas: 57, and by lectotype designation. Synonymy with Rana esculenta tigrina Eichwald by Eichwald, 1842, Nouv. Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 7: 157. Synonymy (with Rana esculenta) by Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 119, and Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 38. Boulenger, 1891, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1891: 376, allied this form with what is now Rana ridibunda. Synonymy Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 157.

Bufo cachinnansHohenacker, 1837, Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 10: 145.

Rana hispanica Bonaparte, 1839, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 24): pl. 81 (description by indication). Holotype: Specimen figured in pl. 81, fig. 5 of the original publication according to Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 157. Type locality: Not stated; restricted to Sicily, Italy, by Mertens and Wermuth, 1960, Amph. Rept. Europas: 55, this restriction supported by discussion in  Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 158. Based on a hybridogen of Rana bergeri x Rana ridibunda.

Rana taurica Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 443. Types: Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: Not designated; given as Tauricus Chersonesus (= Krymskij Poluostrov, Crimea, Ukraine) by XXX. Unavailable name, published as a synonym of Rana esculenta Linnaeus. Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 160.

Rana fluviatilis Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 443. Types: Not stated; Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 159, suggested designating a neotype of this species that is a specimen of Rana hispanica, which Bonaparte thought might actually apply to this form. Type locality: Not designated; given as Rivers of Lombardia, Italy, by XXX. Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 158. Presumably based on a hybridogen of Rana bergeri x Rana ridibunda.

Rana viridis Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 343. Types: animals figured by Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost., as Rana viridis among many other illustrations and descriptions cited by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 343–45; lectotype designated by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 160, as the adult female figured under the name Rana viridis aquatica Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost.pl. 13. Type localities: Numerous by indication; restricted to Nürnberg, Germany, by lectotype designation. Nomen oblitum. Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 156, who noted that this description provided nomenclatural status for Rana viridis Eichwald, 1830, a nomen nudum. Name coined as a junior synonym and homonym of Rana viridis Linnaeus, 1761. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana esculenta tigrina Eichwald, 1842, Nouv. Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 7: 157. Substitute name for Rana dentex Drynicki, 1837.

Pelophylax esculentusFitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 31.

Rana esculenta var. lineata Massalongo, 1854, Mem. Accad. Agric. Commerc. Arti Verona, 29: 427. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "provincia Veronese", Italy. Preoccupied by Rana lineata Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 138 (= Leptodactylus lineatus). Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 161. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana esculenta var. vulgaris Massalongo, 1854, Mem. Accad. Agric. Commerc. Arti Verona, 29: 427. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "provincia Veronese", Italy. Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 161. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana esculenta var. roseo-virescens Massalongo, 1854, Mem. Accad. Agric. Commerc. Arti Verona, 29: 427. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "provincia Veronese", Italy. Synonymy by Lessona, 1877, Atti R. Accad. Lincei, Ser. 3, 1: 1060; Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 161. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana esculenta var. marmorata Massalongo, 1854, Mem. Accad. Agric. Commerc. Arti Verona, 29: 427. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "provincia Veronese", Italy. Senior homonym of Rana marmorata Hallowell, 1861 (= Pelophylax nigromaculatus). Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 161. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Pelophylax hispanicusFitzinger, 1861 "1860", Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 42: 414.

Rana esculenta var. hispanicaSteindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 16; Boettger, 1883, Rept. Amph. Marocco: 46. [Based on misidentified specimens from Morocco]; Boscá, 1880, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 5: 260.

Rana agrorum Gistel, 1868, Die Lurche Europas: 165. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: Not stated; designated as Germany by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 164. Synonymy Mertens, 1936, Senckenb. Biol., 18: 76; Mertens and Wermuth, 1960, Amph. Rept. Europas: 55. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana esculenta var. cachinnansKessler, 1872, Trudy Sankt Peterburgskogo Obschesva Estestvoispytatelei, 3: 6; Camerano, 1882 "1881", C. R. Assoc. Franç. Avanc. Sci., Paris, 10: 680; Prazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 207.

Rana esculenta viridisLataste, 1880, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 5: 61.

Rana esculenta var. ridibundaBoettger, 1880, Ber. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 1879–80: 213; Boulenger, 1885, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1885: 666; Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 270.

Rana esculenta var. viridisBedriaga, 1883, Arch. Naturgesch., 49: 256; Camerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 245 (based on Italian specimens, presumably of Rana ridibunda).

Rana fortis Boulenger, 1884, Zoologist, 3rd Ser., 1884: 220. Syntypes: Including MCZ 6822–30 (according to Barbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69: 327) and MNHNP 84.254–256 (according to Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 36); MNHNP 1884.255 designated lectotype by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 170. Type locality: "North Germany"; restricted to "Berlin, Germany" by Boulenger, 1885, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1885: 666. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1885, Zool. Rec., 21: 16; Boulenger, 1885, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1885: 666; Boulenger, 1891, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1891: 376; Barbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69: 327; Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 170.

Rana (Baliopygus) ridibundaSchulze, 1891, Jahresber. Abhandl. Naturwiss. Ver. Magdeburg, 1890: 177.

Rana (Baliopygus) viridisSchulze, 1891, Jahresber. Abhandl. Naturwiss. Ver. Magdeburg, 1890: 177.

Rana esculenta var. alpinaBoettger, 1892, Kat. Batr. Samml. Mus. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges.: 7.

Rana esculenta var. maxima Prazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 207. Types: Not designated. Type locality: "Hungaria" (as cited by Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 118) for his Rana esculenta var. m.

Rana esculenta var. nigromaculata Prazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 208. Types: Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: Not designated although implied to be in Bohemia. Based on Rana esculenta var. a of Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 208. Preoccupied by Rana nigromaculata Hallowell as noted by Prazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 208.

Rana esculenta var. concolor Prazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 208. Types: Not designated. Type locality: "Croatia" (as cited by Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 118) for his Rana esculenta var. e on which this taxon is based. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana esculenta var. immaculata  Prazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 208. Types: Not designated. Type locality: Not designated although implied to be Bohemia. Based on Rana esculenta var. f of Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 118. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana esculenta var. grisescens  Prazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 208. Types: Not designated. Type locality: Not designated although implied to be Bohemia. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana esculenta var. paulopunctata Prazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 209. Types: Not designated. Type locality: "Chersones taur." (from Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 119). Based on Rana esculenta var. r of Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 119. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana esculenta var. rubiginosa  Prazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 209. Types: Not designated. Type locality: Not designated although implied to be in Bohemia. Based on Rana esculenta var. t of Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 119. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana esculenta var. susana Boulenger, 1905, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 7, 16: 552. Syntypes: BMNH (2 specimens), by original designation. Type locality: "not far from the ruins of Susa, at an altitude of about 400 feet . .. . [one of two specimens from] Kerkbah River", Iran. Status rejected by Boulenger, 1918, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 9, 2: 247. Synonymy with Rana ridibunda

Rana florinskii Kashchenko and Sipacev, 1913, Annu. Mus. Zool. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, 18: 232–236. Types: Not designated. Type locality: Near the summer quay on Bolshoe Dikoe Lake, between the rivers Malaya Kirgizka and Bolshaya Kirgizka, 6.4 km from Tomsk City, Russia. Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 172, who noted subsequently (Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 207), that the type might represent an escapee rather than a natural record or occurrence.

Rana (Rana) esculentaBoulenger, 1920, Rec. Indian Mus., 20: 9.

Rana mangischlakensis Ahl, 1925, Zool. Anz., 65: 19. Holotype: Not stated, but presumably ZMB, unnumbered in the original publication. Type locality: "Mangischlak", Kazakhstan. Thought to be related to Rana tibetana and Rana feae in the original publication (now Paa). Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 172.

Rana ridibunda ridibundaMertens, 1925, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 39: 55. Mertens and Wermuth, 1960, Amph. Rept. Europas: 57.

Rana esculenta var. hungarica Toutain, 1966, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, Ser. 10, 7: 180–181. Nomen nudum. Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 207.

Rana kl. esculentaDubois and Günther, 1982, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 109: 290–305.

Rana (Rana) ridibundaDubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 41, by implication.

Rana (Rana) kl. esculentaDubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 41.

Pelophylax ridibundaFei, Ye, and Huang, 1990, Key to Chinese Amph.: 135; Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 231; Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 164.

Rana (Pelophylax) ridibundaDubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 332.

Rana (Pelophylax) kl. esculentaDubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 332.

Rana (Pelophylax) kl. grafi Crochet, Dubois, Ohler, and Tunner, 1995, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 17: 17. Holotype: MNHNP 1993.3374, by original designation. Type locality: "Gorges de l'Aiguillon, between Lussan (44° 09′ N, 4° 22′ E) and La Bastide, Gard, France". A Pelophylax perezi X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana (Pelophylax) kl. maritima — Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 155.

Rana (Pelophylax) susana — Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 171. Provisional recognition as a distinct species on the bais of the distinctiveness of the descriptions of green frogs from northern and southern Iran.

Rana (Pelophylax) kl. hispanica — Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 157.

Hylarana ridibundaChen, Murphy, Lathrop, Ngo, Orlov, Ho, and Somorjai, 2005, Herpetol. J., 15: 237, by implication.

Pelophylax ridibundusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 369; Che, Pang, Zhao, Wu, Zhao, and Zhang, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 43: 1–13; by implication.

English Names

Laughing Frog (Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 114; Hellmich, 1962, Rept. Amph. Eur.: 74; Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 127).

German River Frog (Boulenger, 1885, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1885: 666).

Marsh Frog (Hellmich, 1962, Rept. Amph. Eur.: 74; Arnold and Burton, 1978, Field Guide Rept. Amph. Brit. Eur.: 85; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 59; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 109; Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 362; Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 89).

Eurasian Marsh Frog (Arekelyan, Danielyan, Corti, Sindaco, and Leviton, 2012, Herpetofauna of Armenia: 44).

Lake Frog (Arnold and Burton, 1978, Field Guide Rept. Amph. Brit. Eur.: 85; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 59; Günther, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 154).

Central Asian Pond Frog (Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 164).

Green Frog (Rana esculenta [a hybrid with Rana lessonae]: Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 103; Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 100; Cuvier, 1831, Animal Kingdom (M'Murtrie), 2: 78; Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 159; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 56).

Common Water-frog (Rana esculenta [a hybrid with Rana lessonae]: Gadow, 1901, Amphibia and Reptiles: 263).

Edible Frog (Rana esculenta [a hybrid with Rana lessonae]: Lacépède, 1802, Nat. Hist. Ovip. Quadruped. (Kerr transl.): 197; Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 159; Boulenger, 1891, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1891: 374; Flower, 1933, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1933: 844; Arnold and Burton, 1978, Field Guide Rept. Amph. Brit. Eur.: 87; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 55; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 107; Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 384; Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 92).

Graf's Frog ("Rana grafi" [hybridogenetic hemiclone]: original publication).

Graf's Hybrid Frog ("Rana grafi" [hybridogenetic hemiclone]: Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 93).

Distribution

Central Europe east of northeastern France, north to southern shore of Baltic Sea (and extreme southern Finland), south to extreme northeastern Spain, northern Italy and the Balkans including eastern Greece; east to ca. 81° E in Asiatic Russia, south to western Iran ()and Afghanistan. Isolated populations in the high Asir region of of western Saudi Arabia, and oases of eastern Saudi Arabia; introduced into England and Italy.

Comment

Unnamed taxa similar to Pelophylax ridibundus revealed in peninsular Italy by Uzzell and Hotz, 1979, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 55: 13–27; in Greece and Serbia and Montenegro by Hotz and Uzzell, 1982, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 134: 50–79, and by Tunner and Heppich, 1982, Z. Zool. Syst. Evolutionsforsch., 20: 209–223. Status of North African frogs is uncertain. See Pelophylax saharicus. See Ma, 1979, Nat. Hist., Beijing, 1979: 37, for Chinese record. Records for the southwestern Balkans, Levant, and Egypt refer to Pelophylax epeiroticus, Pelophylax balcanicus, Pelophylax bedriagae, and Pelophylax levantinus. See account by Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 231. Nöllert and Nöllert, 1992, Die Amph. Eur.: 341–346, provided an account and polygon map. See also Mezhzherin, 1997, Zool. Zh., 76: 933–939, for discussion of morphological and biochemical variation in population in Kazakhstan. See Balletto, Cherchi, and Gasperetti, 1985, Fauna Saudi Arabia, 7: 368, for account of Arabian populations. Briggs and Ault, 1985, Herpetol. Rev., 16: 72–75, detailed the range in southwestern Saudi Arabia. See accounts by Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 362–377, and Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 164–165. Başoğlu and Özeti, 1973, Türkiye Amphibileri: 97–99, provided an account for the Turkish populations. See comment under Pelophylax bedriagae. Günther, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 154–155, discussed relevant biology and range. Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 89–90, provided a brief account, figure, and map, as did Günther IN Engelmann, Fritzsche, Günther, and Obst, 1993, Lurche Kriechtiere Eur.: 181–182. Özeti and Yilmaz, 1994, Türkiye Amfibileri: 145–148, provided an account for Turkish populations (Rana ridibunda ridibunda and Rana ridibunda caralitana [now Pelophylax caralitanus]). Wycherley, Doran, and Beebee, 2002, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 77: 355–365, reported on geographic varation in male advertisement call characteristics. Sartaeva, 2000, Selevinia, 2000: 38–42, provided a brief report on morphometric variation in Kazakhstan. Kyriakopoulou-Sklavounou, Xeros, Charilaou, and Tsiora, 2003, Ann. Soc. R. Zool. Belg., 133: 191–193, on the basis of allele frequencis suggested that Rana ridibunda from Crete is more closely related to Rana balcanica than to Greek populations of Rana ridibunda, suggesting that the latter is a composite. Pikulik, 1996, Zemnavodnyia Pauzuny: 85–88, provided an account for the Belarus population. Lever, 2003, Naturalized Rept. Amph. World: 222–224, discussed the introductions in England, Belgium, France, Italy, Russia, and Kyrghyzstan. Casola, Marracci, Bucci, Ragghianti, Mancino, Hotz, Uzzell, and Guex, 2004, J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res., 42: 234–244, provided a molecular tree of western Palearctic water frogs in the topology Rana saharica (Rana cretensis (Rana perezi (Rana shqiperica (Rana epeirotica ("Rana lessonae" + Rana ridibunda))))). Kuzmin and Maslova, 2003, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 8: 340–342, provided an account for Far East Russia. Because each individual of "Pelophylax esculentus" is a hybrid "Pelophylax esculentus" must be regarded as a kind of frog, not a species, Subgenus Rana, a pattern-class in the Pelophylax ridibundus-Pelophylax lessonae hybridogenetic complex. "Pelophylax esculentus" had a hybrid origin from Pelophylax lessonae and Pelophylax ridibundus, according to Berger, 1968, Acta Zool. Cracov., 13: 301–324. See Dubois, 1982, Alytes, 1: 42–49, for an outline of the complex. See also Berger, 1983, Experientia, 39: 127–130, and Spolsky and Uzzell, 1986, Mol. Biol. Evol., 3: 44–56. Many older records apply to Rana lessonae. Unidentified members of this complex have been introduced on Sardinia, according to Auclair, Auclair, and Brugiere, 1983, Alytes, 2: 53–55. See account by Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 3384–389. Günther, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 138–139, discussed range and relevant literature. Rana maritima was removed from the synonymy of Rana esculenta, by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 155, where it had been placed by Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 443, Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 345; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 12; Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 119; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 38, on the assumption that this was the correct name for the taxon subsequently named Rana grafi. Dubois, 1998, Amphibia-Reptilia, 19: 21, suggested that the name Rana maritima might apply to Rana bergeri or Rana hispanica. See comment under Rana grafi. Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 92, provided a brief account, figure, and map. Wycherley, Doran, and Beebee, 2002, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 77: 355–365, reported on geographic varation in male advertisement call characteristics. Brief account for Europe provided by Günther IN Engelmann, Fritzsche, Günther, and Obst, 1993, Lurche Kriechtiere Eur.: 173–175. Gislén and Kauri, 1959, Acta Vert., Stockholm, 1: 295–300, reported on Swedish populations.Pelophylax kl. grafi is a hybridogenetic hemilineage associated with Rana perezi and Rana ridibunda is "Rana grafi". Because each individual frog is a hybrid "Pelophylax grafi" cannot be considered a lineage of frogs, but a kind of frog. Discovered by Graf, Karch, and Moreillon, 1977, Experientia, 33: 1582–1584, and Graf and Polls-Pelaz, 1989, in Dawley and Bogart (eds.), Evol. Ecol. Unisexual Vert.: 289–302, "Rana grafi" was formerly referred to in the literature as Graf's Frog (e. g., Dubois, 1992, XXX),and briefly the name Rana maritima was used for this taxon (Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 155). Subsequently, Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 206, on the basis of additional evidence suggested that application of the name Rana maritima remained unsettled, and the name Rana grafi was coined for Graf's frog. Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 93–94, provided a brief account, figure, and map as did Günther IN Engelmann, Fritzsche, Günther, and Obst, 1993, Lurche Kriechtiere Eur.: 179–181 (as "Grafscher Hybridfrosch"). The hybridogen now called Pelophylax kl. hispanicus was noted by Uzzell and Hotz, 1979, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 55: 15, as a distinct hybridogenetic population. Hispanicus was removed from the synonymy of Rana perezi by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 157, where it had been placed by XXX. While noting that it may still be found to be a junior synonym of Rana lessonae, Dubois and Ohler attached the name Rana hispanica to the hybridogenetic population formerly known as the "southern hybrid" by Uzzell and Hotz, 1979, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 55: 15. Records for this species from Corsica are based on specimens of Rana bergeri (J. Speybroeck, personal commun.). Baloutch and Kami, 1995, Amph. Iran: 152–157, provided an account for Iran. Ogielska, Kierzkowski, and Rybacki, 2005, Canad. J. Zool., 82: 1894–1901, discussed genome composition in the Pelophylax lessonae-Pelophylax ridibundus-Pelophylax "esculentus" hybridogenetic complex (as Rana). See comment under Pelophylax kurtmuelleri. Valakos, Pafilis, Sotiropoulos, Lymberakis, Maragou, and Foufopoulos, 2008, Amph. Rept. Greece: 118–119, discussed the species in Greece. Holsbeek, Mergeay, Hotz, Plötner, Volckaert, and De Meester, 2008, Mol. Ecol., 17: 5023-5035, noted introduced populations in Belgium. See account of the hybridogenetic system Pelophylax kl. esculentus in Italy, with which this species interacts, by Capula, Sacchi, and Razzetti, 2007, in Lanza et al. (eds.), Fauna d'Italia, 42 (Amph.): 386–392. See account for Pelophylax ridibundus in Italy by Capula, 2007, in Lanza et al. (eds.), Fauna d'Italia, 42 (Amph.): 402–404. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 3: 1071–1075, noted that records from Xinjiang, China, are referrable to Pelophylax terentievi. See comments by Speybroeck, Beukema, and Crochet, 2010, Zootaxa, 2492: 8, regarding the potential for cryptic species in nominal Pelophylax ridibundus in Europe. Bergers and Luijten, 2009, in Creemers and van Delft (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nederland: 242–247, provided a detail summary of the biology in the Netherlands, and Dorenbosch, 2009, in Creemers and van Delft (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nederland: : 236–241, provided a detailed account for the same area for its hybridogenetic associate "Rana esculenta". Rivera, Escoriza, Maluquer-Margalef, Arribas, and Carranza, 2011, Amf. Rept. Catalunya: 96–98, provided a brief account for northeastern Spain and adjacent France. Stojanov, Tzankov, and Naumov, 2011, Die Amph. Rept. Bulgariens: 239–246, provided a fairly detailed account and range map for Bulgaria (and for its hybridogenetic associate Pelophylax "esculentus" on page 233–238). Arekelyan, Danielyan, Corti, Sindaco, and Leviton, 2012, Herpetofauna of Armenia: 44–45, provided a brief account for Armenia and environs. Cogǎlniceanu, Székely, Samoilă, Iosif, Tudor, Plăiaşu, Stănescu, and Rozylowicz, 2013, ZooKeys, 296: 35–57, provided a dot map for Romania of this species and its hybridogenetic parasite Pelophylax kl. esculentus. Behbahani, Nokhbatolfoghahai, and Esmaeili, 2014, Iranian J. Anim. Biosyst., 10: 11–28, found significant interpopulational variation among sites in Fars Province, Iran, in life history and developmental patterns. Mikulíček, Kautman, Kautman, and Pruvost, 2014, J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res., 53: 124–132, reported on hybridogenetic system with Pelophylax lessonae in western Slovakia (producing Pelophylax kl. esculenta). Safaei-Mahroo, Ghaffari, Fahimi, Broomand, Yazdanian, Najafi-Majd, Hosseinian Yousefkani, Rezazadeh, Hosseinzadeh, Nasrabadi, Rajabizadeh, Mashayekhi, Motesharei, Naderi, and Kazemi, 2015, Asian Herpetol. Res., 6: 257–290, reported on distribution and conservation status in Iran. Karaica, Buj, Čavlović, and Stanković, 2016, Salamandra, 52: 161–170, reported on comparative morphology and ecology of the Pelophylax ridibundus/Pelophylax lessonae/Pelophylax "esculentus" complex in Croatia. 

 

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