Lithobates sylvaticus (LeConte, 1825)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Ranidae > Genus: Lithobates > Species: Lithobates sylvaticus

Rana canagica Pallas, 1814 "1831", Zoograph. Rosso-Asiat. Sist. Omn. Animal.: 12. Types: Not mentioned, although presumably originally in ZISP. Type locality: "insulis Aleuticis inter Camtschatcam et Americam, et in hujus Continentis parte a Rossis occupato observait". Synonymy with Rana sylvatica by Lindholm, 1924, Copeia, 129: 46–47. This disputed by Myers, 1930, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 43: 62, who placed it as a senior synonym of Bufo boreas (but subsequent authors have not accepted this as evidenced by inaction).

Rana sylvatica Le Conte, 1825, Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. New York, 1: 282. Type(s): Not known to exist. Type locality: Not stated; designated as "vicinity of New York", USA, by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 81.

Rana pennsylvanica Harlan, 1826, Am. J. Sci. Arts, 10: 58. Types: Not designated although presumably originally in ANSP. Type locality: "Inhabit Pennsylvania and New-Jersey", USA. Described as a junior synonym of Rana sylvatica. Synonymy by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 363; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 47; Cope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 441; Boulenger, 1920, Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 55: 458.

Rana pensylvanicaDuméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 363. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Rana pennsylvanica Harlan, 1825.

Rana cantabrigensis Baird, 1854, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 7: 62. Types: MCZ (not located with certainty, according to Barbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69: 327. Type locality: "Cambridge, Mass. (Collection of Prof. Agassiz)"; in error according to Howe, 1899, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 28: 369, who presumed that it came "probably from the west or northwest of North America, and Cambridge, Mass., the habitat given, probably arose from the specimen being in the collection of Profesor Agassiz"; corrected to "Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan", Canada, by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 81. Synonymy by Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 17; Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 188; Boulenger, 1879, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 4: 174. Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 429, regarded the original publication date to be 1856, but see Fox, 1913, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia,, Index, 1812-1912: vii–xiv.

Rana temporaria var. silvaticaGünther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 17.

Rana temporaria cantabrigensisCope, 1875, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 1: 32.

Rana temporaria silvaticaCope, 1875, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 1: 32.

Rana temporaria var. sylvaticaJordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 188.

Rana cantabridgensis cantabridgensisCope, 1886, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 23: 520. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Rana cantabridgensis latiremis Cope, 1886, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 23: 520. Syntypes: USNM (4 specimens), including USNM 13723, by original designation; USNM 13723–26 according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 73. Type locality: "Lake Alloknagits, Alaska", USA, given as "Lake Aleknagik, north of Nushagak, Alaska", USA by Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 73. Status of subspecies rejected by Boulenger, 1891, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 6, 8: 453-457.

Rana cantabrigensis evittata Cope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 435. Holotype: USNM 5169, by original designation. Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 72, mentioned 23 other "syntypes" but only one specimen was specified in the original and from only one locality. Type locality: "Puget Sound, Washington", USA. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1919, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 9, 3: 414.

Rana silvaticaCope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 115. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Rana sylvatica sylvaticaSchmidt, 1938, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser., 20: 378.

Rana sylvatica cantabrigensisSchmidt, 1938, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser., 20: 379. Status rejected by Martof and Humphries, 1959, Am. Midl. Nat., 61: 350–389.

Rana sylvatica latiremisSchmidt, 1938, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser., 20: 378. Status rejected by Martof and Humphries, 1959, Am. Midl. Nat., 61: 350–389.

Rana sylvatica cherokiana Witschi, 1954 "1953", Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci., 60: 764. Holotype: USNM 134417, by original designation. Type locality: "Murphy, [Cherokee County,] North Carolina [USA], elevation 462 m (1540 ft.) (Appalachian Mountains)". Status rejected by Martof and Humphries, 1959, Am. Midl. Nat., 61: 350–389.

Rana maslini Porter, 1969, Herpetologica, 25: 213. Holotype: USNM 166435, by original designation. Type locality: "sub-alpine park 0. 25 miles north of Fox Park, Albany County, Wyoming at 9,000 ft", USA. Synonymy by Bagdonas and Pettus, 1976, J. Herpetol., 10: 105–112. This synonymy rejected by Collins, 1991, Herpetol. Rev., 22: 43, and Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 12, without discussion.

Rana (Rana) sylvaticaDubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 41. Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 333.

Rana (Novirana) sylvaticaHillis and Wilcox, 2005, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 34: 305. See Dubois, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 317–330, Hillis, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 331–338, and Dubois, 2007, Cladistics, 23: 390–402, for relevant discussion of nomenclature.

Lithobates sylvaticusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 369; Che, Pang, Zhao, Wu, Zhao, and Zhang, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 43: 1–13; by implication.

Lithobates (Aquarana) sylvaticusDubois, 2006, C. R. Biol., Paris, 329: 829; Dubois, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 325.

Rana (Lithobates) sylvatica — Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 428. 

Rana sylvatica — Yuan, Zhou, Chen, Poyarkov, Chen, Jang-Liaw, Chou, Matzke, Iizuka, Min, Kuzmin, Zhang, Cannatella, Hillis, and Che, 2016, Syst. Biol., 65: 835. 

English Names

Wood Frog (Le Conte, 1825, Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. New York, 1: 284; Smith, 1833, Rep. Geol. Mineral. Bot. Zool. Massachusetts: 552; Storer, 1840, Boston J. Nat. Hist., 3: 46; Verrill, 1863, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 9: 198; Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 25; Hay, 1892, Annu. Rep. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Indiana for 1891: 479; Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 138; Brimley, 1907, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 23: 158; Wright and Wright, 1933, Handb. Frogs Toads U.S. Canada: xi; Stebbins, 1951, Amph. W. North Am.: 373; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 81; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 177; Stebbins, 1966, Field Guide W. North Am. Rept. Amph.: 71; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 343; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 13; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 109; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 13; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 15; Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2008, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 37: 9; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 9; Frost, McDiarmid, Mendelson, and Green, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 18; Frost, Lemmon, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 16).

Northern Wood Frog (Rana sylvatica cantabrigensis [no longer recognized]: Dickerson, 1906, The Frog Book: 211; Slevin, 1928, Occas. Pap. California Acad. Sci., 16: 132; Wright and Wright, 1933, Handb. Frogs Toads U.S. Canada: xi; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 81; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 177).

Cherokee Wood Frog (Rana sylvatica cherokiana [no longer recognized]: Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 177).

Eastern Wood Frog (Rana sylvatica sylvatica [no longer recognized]: Dickerson, 1906, The Frog Book: 205; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 79; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 177),

Maslin's Wood Frog (Rana maslini [no longer recognized]: Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 13; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 108; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 13).

Cambridge Frog (Rana sylvatica cantabrigensis [no longer recognized]: Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 25).

Distribution

Northern Alaska (USA) and Labrador (Canada) south to northern Idaho, Minnesota, northern Georgia, and Massachusetts (USA); isolated populations in southern Missouri and adjacent Arkansas, and northern Colorado (USA).

Comment

Tentatively considered a member of the Rana temporaria group by Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 41, and Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 333, included it in his section Rana, Rana (Rana) temporaria group. See Case, 1978, Syst. Zool., 27: 299–311; Post and Uzzell, 1981, Syst. Zool., 30: 170–180. Martof and Humphries, 1959, Am. Midl. Nat., 61: 350–389, recognized five general types of Rana sylvatica in North America. Reviewed by Martof, 1970, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 86: 1–4. See Zeyl, 1993, J. Herpetol., 27: 233–236, for summary of geographic allozyme variation. Rana maslini Porter, 1969, has been considered a distinct species by some authors although this was rejected by Bagdonas and Pettus, 1976, J. Herpetol., 10: 105–112, on the basis of its lack of diagnosability. Stebbins, 2003, Field Guide W. Rept. Amph., Ed. 3: 227, provided a brief account, figure, and map. XXX, considered Lithobates sylvaticus to be the sister taxon of remaining Lithobates, while Hillis and Wilcox, 2005, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 34: 305, considered it to be the sister taxon of Aquarana. Graham, Timpe, and Giovanetto, 2008, Herpetol. Rev., 38: 494–495, provided the southernmost locality in Georgia, USA. Lee-Yaw, Irwin, and Green, 2010, Mol. Ecol., 17: 867–884, reported on molecular biogeography and intraspecific systematics, which documented an eastern and western clade. Scherer, Muths, Noon, and Oyler-McCance, 2012, Conserv. Genetics, 13: 1521–1530, reported on landscape genetics of isolated populations in Colorado, USA. Redmer and Trauth, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 590–593, and Dodd, 2013, Frogs U.S. and Canada, 2 : 637–669, provided detailed account that summarized relevant literature. Elliot, Gerhardt, and Davidson, 2009, Frogs and Toads of N. Am.: 198–201, provided an account, photos, and advertisement call. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 237–238, provided an account of larval morphology and biology. 

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