Pyxicephalus Tschudi, 1838

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Pyxicephalidae > Subfamily: Pyxicephalinae > Genus: Pyxicephalus
4 species

Pyxicephalus Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 46. Type species: Pyxicephalus adspersus Tschudi, 1838, by subsequent designation of Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 32.

Maltzania Boettger, 1881, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 12: 417. Type species: Maltzania bufonia Boettger, 1881, by monotypy. Synonymy by Barbour and Loveridge, 1928, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 50: 200. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Zool. Rec., 18: 14; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 7.

Phrynopsis Pfeffer, 1893, Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst., 10: 101. Type species: Phrynopsis boulengerii Pfeffer, 1893, by monotypy. Synonymy with Rana (sensu lato) by Barbour and Loveridge, 1928, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 50: 200. Preoccupied by Phrynopsis Rafinesque, 1815, Analyse Nat.: 107.

English Names

Bullfrogs (Van Dijk, 1978, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 17: 15; Passmore and Carruthers, 1979, S. Afr. Frogs: 112; Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 345; Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 318; Du Preez and Carruthers, 2009, Compl. Guide Frogs S. Afr.: 410).

African Bullfrogs (Van Dijk, 1978, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 17: 15; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 106).

Distribution

Nonforested areas of subsaharan Africa.

Comment

Prior to the revision of Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297, placed in subfamily Raninae, Tribe Pyxicephalini according to Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 66. Subfamily Pyxicephalinae, according to Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 317, following Clarke, 1981. See comment under Aubria. Regarded as a subgenus of Rana by Dubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 225-284, and related to the Rana occipitalis group of Euphlyctis (now Hoplobatrachus occipitalis group), a view not in agreement with Clarke, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 285-311, who regarded Pyxicephalus and Aubria as sister-taxa and together the sister-taxon of Conraua + the Rana (Euphlyctis) occipitalis group (now Hoplobatrachus occipitalis group). Subsequently regarded as a genus by Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 66, and Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 317. Channing, Du Preez, and Passmore, 1994, J. Zool., London, 234: 141-148, diagnosed the two species and discussed their biology. Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 345-351, and Du Preez and Carruthers, 2009, Compl. Guide Frogs S. Afr.: 410-417, provided keys and accounts for the species of southern Africa. Nago, Grell, Sinsin, and Rödel, 2006, Salamandra, 42: 93-108, discussed the distinctiveness of Pyxicephalus adspersus and Pyxicephalus edulis. Blackburn, 2008, Herpetol. Rev., 39: 364, briefly discussed the taxonomic uncertainty of West Africa populations. Channing, Rödel, and Channing, 2012, Tadpoles of Africa: 344–348, provided information on comparative larval morphology.

Contained taxa (4 sp.):

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