Odontophrynus americanus (Duméril and Bibron, 1841)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Odontophrynidae > Genus: Odontophrynus > Species: Odontophrynus americanus

Pyxicephalus americanus Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 446. Holotype: MNHNP 4530, according to Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 26. Type locality: sent from "Buenos-Ayres", Argentina. The type locality is not necessarily Buenos Aires, Argentina, as usually cited; instead"nous ne possédons qu'un seul individu, qui a été envoyé de Buenos-Ayres par M. d'Orbignyi" (E.O. Lavilla, pers. commun.). Lescure, Bour, Ineich, Ohler, and Ortiz, 2002, C. R. Palevol, Paris, 1: 531, noted that the data associated with the type are "rives du Rio negro, Patagonie, Argentine".

Tomopterna americanaFitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 32.

Ceratophrys americanaBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 226.

Hyperoodon asper Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 1. Types: MNHNC or MHNM (2 specimens; museum unclear in text) according to the original publication; not located in MHNM, according to Klappenbach and Langone, 1992, An. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Montevideo, Ser. 2, 8: 200; by implication of Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 265-288, probably not found in MNHNC. Type locality: "Montevideo". Tentative synonymy by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 266 (who provided the long missing original illustration); synonymy by Klappenbach, 1968, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 23: 148, and Lynch, 1970, Copeia, 1970: 494-495.

Ceratophrys argentina Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 72. Holotype: Animal in figure of Pyxycephalus americanus in Bell, 1843, Zool. Voyage Beagle, Part 5: figs. 2, 2a-c; pl. 18, presumably in BMNH. Type locality: Not designated, although Argentina is implied by the species name. Synonymy by Klappenbach and Langone, 1992, An. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Montevideo, Ser. 2, 8: 200-201.

Hiperoodon asperPhilippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 159. Incorrect spelling of generic name.

Odontophrynus americanusMiranda-Ribeiro, 1920, Rev. Mus. Paulista, São Paulo, 12: 299.

English Names

Common Lesser Escuerzo (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 82).

American Ground Frog (Eterovick and Sazima, 2004, Anf. Serra do Cipó: 99).

Distribution

Central and northern Argentina, southern Paraguay, southern Brazil, and Uruguay.

Comment

See Barrio and Pistol de Rubel, 1972, Physis, Buenos Aires, 31: 281–291, and Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 301–304, for accounts. Klappenbach and Langone, 1992, An. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Montevideo, Ser. 2, 8: 200-201, discussed the holotype and synonymy. Köhler, 2000, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 48: 67–68, briefly compared Bolivian Odontophrynus americanus and Odontophrynus lavillai. Records from Uruguay, Paraguay, Brazil, Bolivia, and northern Argentina apply either to Odontophrynus cordobae or unnamed diploid species (see comment under Odontophrynus cordobae). Alvares, Polanco, Brison, Coutinho, and Ruiz, 2002, Genome, 45: 71–81, reported on molecular evolution of 2N and 4N populations of this nominal species from São Paulo, Brazil. Achaval and Olmos, 2003, Anf. Rept. Uruguay, ed. 2: 35, provided a brief account and photograph for the Uruguay population. Rosset, Baldo, Lanzone, and Basso, 2006, J. Herpetol., 40: 465–477, discussed the range and suggested that Odontophrynus americanus might be a complex derived from different autopolyploid origins. Rosset, Baldo, Lanzone, and Basso, 2006, J. Herpetol., 40: 465–477, discussed the range and noted that an undescribed species found in Uruguay, eastern Paraguay, and southern Brazil was formerly confused with Odontophrynus cordobae. Brusquetti and Lavilla, 2006, Cuad. Herpetol., 20: 16, briefly discussed the range in Paraguay. Eterovick and Sazima, 2004, Anf. Serra do Cipó: 99–100, provided a photograph and brief account. Grenat, Salas, and Martino, 2009, Zootaxa, 2049: 67–68, documented that erythrocyte volume differs between this tetraploid species and the diploid Odontophrynus cordobae. Cruz, Feio, and Caramaschi, 2009, Anf. Ibitipoca: 72–73, provided photographs and a brief account for Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Records from the Espinhaço Range of Minas Gerais and Bahia, Brazil, are now assigned to Odontophrynus juquinha. 

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