Kaloula Gray, 1831

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Microhylidae > Subfamily: Microhylinae > Genus: Kaloula
17 species

Kaloula Gray, 1831, Zool. Misc., Part 1: 38. Type species: Kaloula pulchra Gray, 1831, by monotypy.

Hyladactylus Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 48, 85. Type species: Bombinator baleatus Müller, 1836, by monotypy. Synonymy by Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 68; Cope, 1867, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 192; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 167.

HylaedactylusDuméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 732. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Plectropus Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 732. Type species: Plectropus pictus Duméril and Bibron, 1841, by monotypy. Synonymy by Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 68; Cope, 1867, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 192; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 167.

Hylodactylus Agassiz, 1846, Nomencl. Zool., Fasc. 12: 189. Unjustified emendation of Hyladactylus Tschudi, 1838.

Pelida Gistel, 1848, Naturgesch. Thierr.: xi. Substitute name for Hyladactylus Tschudi, 1838.

Holonectes Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 455. Explicit subgenus under Hylaedactylus)). Types species: Hylaedactylus (Holonectes) conjunctus Peters, 1863, by monotypy. Synonymy by Cope, 1867, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 192; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 167.

CalohylaPeters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 455. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

CallulaGünther, 1864, Rept. Brit. India: 436. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Cacopoides Barbour, 1908, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 51: 321. Type species: Cacopoides borealis Barbour, 1908, by monotypy. Synonymy by Barbour, 1909, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 61: 402.

KallulaBourret, 1927, Fauna Indochine, Vert., 3: 263. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Nomina inquirenda - Name(s) unassigned to a living or extinct population

Kaloula albotuberculata Inger and Voris, 2001, J. Biogeograph., 28: 882. Holotype: Not stated. Type locality: Not given beyond Sulawesi. Nomen nudum attributed to D. T. Iskandar in preparation.

English Names

Asian Narrowmouth Toads (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 90).

Distribution

Korea and northern China to Lesser Sundas and Philippines; Bangladesh, and India; controversially in Nepal (see comment).

Comment

Inger, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 33: 420-445, discussed the Philippine species. Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 121-126, reviewed the Bornean species. Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 484-493, reviewed the Indochinese species. Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 287-295, reviewed the Chinese species. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 924-949, provided a key and accounts for the species of China. Matsui, Hamidy, Belabut, Ahmad, Panha, Sudin, Khonsue, Oh, Yong, Jiang, and Nishikawa, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 167-176, suggested on the basis of an analysis of mtDNA that Kaloula is paraphyletic with respect to a group composed of Phrynella + Metaphrynella. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543-583, in their study of Genbank sequences, suggested that Kaloula is paraphyletic with respect to Uperodon and Ramanella. Blackburn, Siler, Diesmos, McGuire, Cannatella, and Brown, 2013, Evolution, 67: 2631–2646, reported on the phylogenetics of Kaloula and morphological and habitat diversification. In addition they noted unnamed species in Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, several in the Philippines (Palawan, Sibuyan, Mindoro, Samar-Leyten, and Luzon), and Sulawesi. Yong, Song, Lim, Eamsobhana, and Tan, 2016, Biochem. Syst. Ecol., 66: 243–253, found Kaloula to be monophyletic, but did not sample Uperodon, Ramanella, Phrynella, or Metaphrynella. Peloso, Frost, Richards, Rodrigues, Donnellan, Matsui, Raxworthy, Biju, Lemmon, Lemmon, and Wheeler, 2016, Cladistics, 32: 135, found Kaloula and Microhyla to both be monophyletic but phylogenetically distant from each other. 

Contained taxa (17 sp.):

External links:

Please note: these links will take you to external websites not affiliated with the American Museum of Natural History. We are not responsible for their content.