Gastrophryne olivacea (Hallowell, 1856)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Microhylidae > Subfamily: Gastrophryninae > Genus: Gastrophryne > Species: Gastrophryne olivacea

Engystoma olivaceum Hallowell, 1856, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 8: 252. Type(s): Not stated; according to Nelson, 1972, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 122: 1, ANSP 2745 is probably the holotype. Type locality: "Kansas and Nebraska", USA; restricted to "Kansas, Geary Co., Fort Riley", USA, by Smith and Taylor, 1950, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 33: 358; restricted to "vicinity of Lawrence, [Douglas County,] Kansas", USA, by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 77. This restriction regarded as invalid by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 381, on the basis of the restriction not being based on disclosed evidence. 

Engystoma texense Girard, 1859, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 11: 169. Syntypes: Not stated; USNM 2644 (2 specimens) according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 48. Type locality: "procured in Texas"; given by Stejneger and Barbour, 1933, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 3: 43, as "Rio Seco, near D'Hanis, Medina Co., Texas", USA; listed as "Rio Seco, Medina County, Texas", USA, by Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 48. Synonymy (with Engystoma carolinense sensu lato) by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 162, and Cope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 385. Synonymy by Smith, 1933, Copeia, 1933: 217.

Engystoma areolata Strecker, 1909, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 22: 118–119. Holotype: USNM 38999 (formerly J.D. Mitchell 501), according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 48. Type locality: "Guadalupe River bottom, Victoria County, Texas", USA. Synonymy by Burt, 1938, Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci., 23: 608. Nelson, 1972, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 122: 1, noted that the type may be a hybrid with Gastrophryne carolinensis.

Gastrophryne areolataStejneger, 1910, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 23: 166.

Gastrophryne texanaStejneger, 1910, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 23: 166.

Gastrophryne texenseStrecker, 1915, Baylor Univ. Bull., 18: 47.

Engystoma texensisNieden, 1926, Das Tierreich, 49: 65.

Gastrophryne olivaceaSmith, 1934, Am. Midl. Nat., 15: 501.

Microhyla olivaceaParker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 147–148.

Microhyla areolataParker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 201.

Microhyla carolinensis olivaceaHecht and Matalas, 1946, Am. Mus. Novit., 1315: 5–7.

Microhyla olivacea olivaceaLangebartel and Smith, 1954, Herpetologica, 10: 126.

Gastrophryne carolinensis olivaceaCarvalho, 1954, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 555: 13.

Gastrophryne olivacea olivaceaChrapliwy, Williams, and Smith, 1961, Herpetologica, 17: 89.

English Names

Texas Narrow-mouthed Toad (Gastrophryne texense [no longer recognized]: Strecker, 1915, Baylor Univ. Bull., 18: 46; Wright and Wright, 1933, Handb. Frogs Toads U.S. Canada: xi).

Mitchell's Narrow-mouthed Toad (Gastrophryne areolata [no longer recognized]: Strecker, 1915, Baylor Univ. Bull., 18: 47; Wright and Wright, 1933, Handb. Frogs Toads U.S. Canada: xi).

Western Narrow-mouthed Toad (Gastrophryne olivacea: Smith, 1934, Am. Midl. Nat., 15: 501; Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2008, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 37: 5; Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 14; Frost, McDiarmid, Mendelson, and Green, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 15; Frost, Lemmon, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 11).

Great Plains Narrow-mouthed Toad (Gastrophryne olivacea: Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 77; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 176; Stebbins, 1966, Field Guide W. North Am. Rept. Amph.: 78; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 335; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 9).

Great Plains Narrowmouth Toad (Gastrophryne olivacea: Liner, 1994, Herpetol. Circ., 23: 22; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 89; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 11; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 12; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 8).

Distribution

Extreme southern Nebraska east and south through central Missouri south through Oklahoma and much of Texas (USA) west and south to Chihuahua, eastern Durango, Tamaulipas, and San Luis Potosí (Mexico); isolated records in southwestern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado and isolated records in western Arkansas (USA). 

Comment

Reviewed by Nelson, 1972, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 122: 1–4; details of distribution given by Nelson, 1972, J. Herpetol., 6: 129–130. Stebbins, 2003, Field Guide W. Rept. Amph., Ed. 3: 243-244, provided a brief account, figure, and map. Makowsky, Chesser, and Rissler, 2009, Genetica, 135: 169–183, reported a striking lack of molecular variation among populations. Geluso and Wright, 2010, Herpetol. Rev., 41: 103, provided a record for southern Nebraska, USA, and commented on the range. Lemos-Espinal and Smith, 2007, Anf. Rept. Coahuila México: 53, provided an account for Coahuila, Mexico. Lemos-Espinal and Dixon, 2013, Amphibians and Reptiles of San Luis Potosí: 65–66, provided an account for San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Sredl and Field, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 503–506, and Dodd, 2013, Frogs U.S. and Canada, 1: 448–455, provided account that summarized the relevant literature, in the sense of including the recently recognized Gastrophryne mazatlanensis as a synonym. Elliot, Gerhardt, and Davidson, 2009, Frogs and Toads of N. Am.: 280–281, provided an account (in the sense of including Gastrophryne mazatlanensis), photos, and advertisement call. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 218–219, provided an account of larval morphology and biology. Lemos-Espinal, Smith, and Valdes-Lares, 2019, Amph. Rept. Durango: 73–74, provided a brief account for Durango, Mexico. Hernandez, Herr, Stevens, Cork, Medina-Nava, Vialpando, Warfel, Fields, Brodie, and Graham, 2019, Check List, 15: 81, provided a record for Ojinaga municipality, north-eastern Chihuahua, Mexico.           

 

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