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Gastrophryne Fitzinger, 1843
Gastrophryne Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 33. Type species: Engystoma rugosum Duméril and Bibron, 1841 (= Engystoma carolinense Holbrook, 1836), by original designation.
Narrowmouth Toads (Liner, 1994, Herpetol. Circ., 23: 22; Lee, 2000, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Maya World: 121; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 8).
American Narrowmouth Toads (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 89).
North American Narrow-mouthed Toads (Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 9; Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2008, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 37: 5; Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 14; Frost, McDiarmid, Mendelson, and Green, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 15).
Southern USA to Honduras.
Reviewed by Nelson, 1972, J. Herpetol., 6: 111-137; and Nelson, 1973, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 134: 1-2. Probably derived from Hypopachus according to Carvalho, 1954, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 555: 12. A close affinity between these two genera and the lack of close relationship between Gastrophryne and Microhyla (contra Parker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae) was supported by the subsequent studies summarized by Bogart and Nelson, 1976, Herpetologica, 32: 205. Greenbaum, Smith, and de Sá, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 265-277, suggested that Gastrophryne is paraphyletic with respect to Hypopachus, with Gastrophryne usta being more closely related to Hypopachus than to other Gastrophryne.
Contained taxa (4 sp.):
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