Chiasmocleis Méhely, 1904
Chiasmocleis Méhely, 1904, Ann. Hist. Nat. Mus. Natl. Hungarici, 2: 210. Type species: Engystoma albopunctatum Boettger, 1885, by monotypy.
Nectodactylus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1924, Bol. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 1: 256. Type species: Nectodactylus spinulosus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1924, by monotypy. Synonymy by Parker, 1927, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 187: 2.
Syncope Walker, 1973, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 20: 1. Type species: Syncope antenori Walker, 1973, by original designation. Synonymy by Peloso, Sturaro, Forlani, Gaucher, Motta, and Wheeler, 2014, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 386: 4.
Humming Frogs (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 88).
Silent Frogs (Syncope [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 93).
Panama and tropical South America, north and east of the Andes.
Dunn, 1949, Am. Mus. Novit., 1419: 5, included a key to the species then known. Duellman, 1978, Misc. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 65: 187-190, compared three sympatric species. Walker and Duellman, 1974, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 26: 5, commented on the morphological heterogeneity encompassed in this nominal genus (see comment under Chiasmocleis anatipes). Cruz, Caramaschi, and Izecksohn, 1997, Alytes, 15: 49-71, discussed the systematics of the Brazilian representatives. Formerly in the New World component of Microhylinae; Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 225, removed Chiasmocleis from any subfamily pending resolution of its phylogenetic placement. van der Meijden, Vences, Hoegg, Boistel, Channing, and Meyer, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 44: 1017-1030, placed Chiasmocleis in their Gastrophryninae on the basis of DNA sequence data. Funk and Cannatella, 2009, Zootaxa, 2247: 37-50, provided a comparison of species from the western Amazon region. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543-583, in their study of Genbank sequences, suggested a basal position of Chiasmocleis in the Gastrophryninae. de Sá, Streicher, Sekonyela, Forlani, Loader, Greenbaum, Richards, and Haddad, 2012, BMC Evol. Biol., 12(241) : 1-21, reported on the phylogenetics of the group and found former Chiasmocleis as polyphyletic with some species imbedded within Syncope and another close to Elachistocleis; their remedy was to transfer a number of species to Syncope, and Elachistocleis, rendering Chiasmocleis monophyletic. Peloso, Sturaro, Forlani, Gaucher, Motta, and Wheeler, 2014, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 386: 1-96, reported on the phylogenetics and taxonomy of the species in Amazonia and delimited five named clades (species groups). Forlani, Tonini, Cruz, Zaher, and de Sá, 2017, PeerJ, 5(e3005): 1–43, reported on molecular phylogenetics of the species.
Contained taxa (33 sp.):
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