Chiasmocleis Méhely, 1904

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Microhylidae > Subfamily: Gastrophryninae > Genus: Chiasmocleis
36 species

Chiasmocleis Méhely, 1904, Ann. Hist. Nat. Mus. Natl. Hungarici, 2: 210. Type species: Engystoma albopunctatum Boettger, 1885, by monotypy.

Nectodactylus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1924, Bol. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 1: 256. Type species: Nectodactylus spinulosus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1924, by monotypy. Synonymy by Parker, 1927, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 187: 2.

Syncope Walker, 1973, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 20: 1. Type species: Syncope antenori Walker, 1973, by original designation. Synonymy by Peloso, Sturaro, Forlani, Gaucher, Motta, and Wheeler, 2014, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 386: 4. Treatment as a subgenus of Chiasmocleis by de Sá, Tonini, van Huss, Long, Cuddy, Forlani, Peloso, Zaher, and Haddad, 2018 "2019", Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 130: 198. 

Relictus de Sá, Tonini, van Huss, Long, Cuddy, Forlani, Peloso, Zaher, and Haddad, 2018 "2019", Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 130: 206. Type species: Chiasmocleis gnoma Canedo, Dixo, and Pombal, 2004. Preoccupied by Relictus (fish). Dubois, Frétey, and Ohler, 2018, Bionomina, 13: 41–64, noted that the name Relictus is unavailable due to not being diagnosed in the original publication and due to its preoccupation. 

 

English Names

Humming Frogs (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 88).

Silent Frogs (Syncope [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 93).

Distribution

Tropical South America, north and east of the Andes.

Comment

Dunn, 1949, Am. Mus. Novit., 1419: 5, included a key to the species then known. Duellman, 1978, Misc. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 65: 187-190, compared three sympatric species. Walker and Duellman, 1974, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 26: 5, commented on the morphological heterogeneity encompassed in this nominal genus (see comment under Chiasmocleis anatipes). Cruz, Caramaschi, and Izecksohn, 1997, Alytes, 15: 49-71, discussed the systematics of the Brazilian representatives. Formerly in the New World component of Microhylinae; Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 225, removed Chiasmocleis from any subfamily pending resolution of its phylogenetic placement. van der Meijden, Vences, Hoegg, Boistel, Channing, and Meyer, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 44: 1017-1030, placed Chiasmocleis in their Gastrophryninae on the basis of DNA sequence data. Funk and Cannatella, 2009, Zootaxa, 2247: 37-50, provided a comparison of species from the western Amazon region. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543-583, in their study of Genbank sequences, suggested a basal position of Chiasmocleis in the Gastrophryninae. de Sá, Streicher, Sekonyela, Forlani, Loader, Greenbaum, Richards, and Haddad, 2012, BMC Evol. Biol., 12(241) : 1-21, reported on the phylogenetics of the group and found former Chiasmocleis as polyphyletic with some species imbedded within Syncope and another close to Elachistocleis; their remedy was to transfer a number of species to Syncope, and Elachistocleis, rendering Chiasmocleis monophyletic. Peloso, Sturaro, Forlani, Gaucher, Motta, and Wheeler, 2014, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 386: 1-96, reported on the phylogenetics and taxonomy of the species in Amazonia and delimited five named clades (species groups). Forlani, Tonini, Cruz, Zaher, and de Sá, 2017, PeerJ, 5(e3005): 1–43, reported on molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the species. de Sá, Tonini, van Huss, Long, Cuddy, Forlani, Peloso, Zaher, and Haddad, 2018 "2019", Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 130: 198–210, reported on the phylogenetics and biogeography of the species, coining a new subgeneric name, Relictus, for Chiasmocleis gnoma, and employing Syncope as Chiasmocleis as other subgenera, reflected in the species synonymies. 

Contained taxa (36 sp.):

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