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Gastrophryninae Fitzinger, 1843
Engystomatidarum Boulenger, 1887, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 5, 20: 50-53. Type genus: Engystoma Fitzinger, 1826. Synonymy by Parker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 71. See comment under Engystoma Fitzinger, 1826.
Gastrophrynidae — Metcalf, 1923, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 120: 25; Bossuyt and Roelants, 2009, in Hedges and Kumar (eds.), Timetree of Life: 358.
Gastrophryninae — Metcalf, 1923, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 120: 274; Laurent, 1986, in Grassé and Delsol (eds.), Traite de Zool., 14: 744.
Gastrophrynini — Dubois, 2005, Alytes, 23: 15.
North and South America.
See comment under Microhylinae; several genera of New World microhylids were not assigned to subfamily by Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 225 (Adelastes, Altigius, Arcovomer, Chiasmocleis, Hyophryne, Hypopachus, Otophryne, Relictovomer, Stereocyclops, Synapturanus, and Syncope), of which all have now (March 2014) been assigned with the exception of Adelastes. Regardless, considerable literature addresses the New World microhylids. Carvalho, 1954, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 555: 1-19, reviewed the New World genera. Walker, 1973, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 20: 1-7, compared a number of features of the New World genera. Dunn, 1949, Am. Mus. Novit., 1419: 1-21, reviewed South American species. Cochran, 1955 "1954", Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 206: 361-372, reviewed the southeastern Brazilian species. On the basis of karyology, Bogart, Pyburn, and Nelson, 1976, Herpetologica, 32: 210, suggested that Otophryne robusta is not closely allied to other New World microhylids, a suggestion possibly supported by the toothed larva described by Pyburn, 1980, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 33: 231-238. Wild, 1995, Copeia, 1995: 837-849, presented a phylogenetic analysis of New World genera and synonymized Otophryninae on the basis that its recognition would render New World Microhylinae (= ca. Gastrophryninae) paraphyletic; see comment under Otophryninae. Dubois, 2005, Alytes, 23: 16; without discussion, regarded the New World component of Microhylinae as the tribe Gastrophrynini, and the Old World component as Microhylini, without producing any evidence of either's monophyly. Bossuyt and Roelants, 2009, in Hedges and Kumar (eds.), Timetree of Life: 357-364, considered this taxon a distinct family, Gastrophrynidae. Greenbaum, Smith, and de Sá, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 265-277, suggested that Gastrophryninae is paraphyletic with respect to Phrynomerinae, but this conclusion was based on sparse taxon sampling and less evidence than previous publications. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543-583, in their large study of Genbank sequences suggested that Gastrophryninae is the sister taxon of Hoplophryninae + Cophylinae.