Megophrys major Boulenger, 1908

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Megophryidae > Genus: Megophrys > Species: Megophrys major

Xenophrys gigas Jerdon, 1870, Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1870: 85. Types: not stated; although ZSIC (4 specimens); ZSIC 9670, 9681, 10777, 10779 reported by Chanda, Das, and Dubois, 2001 "2000", Hamadryad, 25: 102. Type locality: "Darjeeling", West Bengal, India. Given as "Khasi Hills, Darjeeling", West Bengal, India, by Gee and Boring, 1929, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull., 4: 20. Junior secondary homonym of Megalophrys gigas Blyth, 1854 (= Paa liebigii), when in Megophrys.

Megalophrys major Boulenger, 1908, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1908: 416. Replacement name for Xenophrys gigas Jerdon, 1870.

Megophrys majorGee and Boring, 1929, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull., 4: 20; Pope and Boring, 1940, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull., 15: 28; Smith, 1940, Rec. Indian Mus., 42: 469.

Xenophrys majorOhler, 2003, Alytes, 21: 23, by implication; Delorme, Dubois, Grosjean, and Ohler, 2006, Alytes, 24: 17; Chen, Zhou, Poyarkov, Stuart, Brown, Lathrop, Wang, Yuan, Jiang, Hou, Chen, Suwannapoom, Nguyen, Duong, Papenfuss, Murphy, Zhang, and Che, 2016, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 106: 41.

Liuophrys major — Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1 : 620.

Megophrys (Xenophrys) major — Mahony, Foley, Biju, and Teeling, 2017, Mol. Biol. Evol., 34: 755. 

English Names

Anderson's Spadefoot Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 86 [as Megophrys lateralis]).

Anderson's Pelobatid Toad (Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 63 [as Megophrys lateralis]).

White-lipped Horned Toad (Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 108 as Megophrys lateralis]; Vassilieva, Galoyan, Poyarkov, and Geissler, 2016, Photograph. Field Guide Amph. Rept. Lowland S. Vietnam: 50).

Doi Suthep Spine-eyed Frog (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 87).

Doi Suthep Horn Frog (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 87).

Great Stream Horned Frog (Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 84).

Major's Horned Toad (Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 55).

Major Horned Toad (Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1 : 620).

Distribution

Southern Yunnan (see comment) and an isolated record in southern Guangxi, China; northeastern India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, and Nagaland); eastern Bhutan; northern Myanmar; northwestern Thailand; highlands of Laos and Vietnam (see comment) up to 2600 m elevation and extreme northeastern Cambodia (see comment).

Comment

Considered a synonym of Ixalus lateralis (now Leptolalax lateralis) by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 43, and Zhao and Adler, 1993, Herpetol. China: 119. Fei and Ye, 2000, Cultum Herpetol. Sinica, 8: 59-63, discussed the taxonomy of this species as well as its confusion with Ixalus lateralis Anderson, 1871, and noted that the stated distribution is highly provisonal. Much of the literature of this species refers to it erreoneously as Megophrys lateralis (e.g., Pope and Boring, 1940, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull., 15: 28; Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 199; Liu, 1950, Fieldiana, Zool. Mem., 2: 180; Dubois, 1980, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 49: 469-482; Rao and Yang, 1997, Asiat. Herpetol. Res., 7: 98; Dubois and Ohler, 1998, Dumerilia, 4: 14; Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 168, and Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 108-109; Sarkar and Ray, 2006, In Alfred (ed.), Fauna of Arunachal Pradesh, Part 1: 292-293). Orlov, Murphy, Ananjeva, Ryabov, and Ho, 2002, Russ. J. Herpetol., 9: 83, commented on nomenclature and implicitly did not accept the arrangement of Fei and Ye, using instead the name Megophrys lateralis. See also brief accounts (as Megophrys lateralis) by Zhao and Yang, 1997, Amph. Rept. Hengduan Mountains Region: 43-44, and Dutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 37. Stuart, 2005, Herpetol. Rev., 36: 474, provided Laos records. Ao, Bordoloi, and Ohler, 2003, Zoos' Print J., 18: 1117-1125, provided a specific locality for Nagaland, northeastern India. Ningombam and Bordoloi, 2007, Zoos' Print J., 22: 2688-2690, provided a record for Manipur, northeastern India. Yang, 2008, in Yang and Rao (ed.), Amph. Rept. Yunnan: 29-30, provided a brief account (as Megophrys lateralis) for Yunnan, China. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 370-376, provided an account and spot map for China. Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 55-56, provided a brief characterization and photographs. Stuart, Rowley, Neang, Emmett, and Sitha, 2010, Cambodian J. Nat. Hist., 2010: 38-47, provided a record for northeastern Cambodia. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 194-195, provided a brief account including photographs. See comment under Leptolalax lateralisFei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 223, provided an account, photographs, and a revised range map for China. Wangyal, 2013, J. Threatened Taxa, 5: 4777, provided a record from Trashiyangtse District, eastern Bhutan. See brief account, photograph, and map in Vassilieva, Galoyan, Poyarkov, and Geissler, 2016, Photograph. Field Guide Amph. Rept. Lowland S. Vietnam: 51–53.  Chen, Zhou, Poyarkov, Stuart, Brown, Lathrop, Wang, Yuan, Jiang, Hou, Chen, Suwannapoom, Nguyen, Duong, Papenfuss, Murphy, Zhang, and Che, 2016, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 106: 28–43, noted that Xenophrys major is a complex of species and removed Xenophrys maosonensis from the synonymy of this species, which then casts into doubt any records from China and Vietnam previously assigned to Xenophrys majorSubba, Aravind, and Ravikanth, 2016, Check List, 13(1: 2033): 12, considered the presence of this species in Sikkim, India, to be doubtful. Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1 : 620–622, provided an account, photograph, and dot map for China, as Liuophrys major.

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