Leptobrachium ailaonicum (Yang, Chen, and Ma, 1983)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Megophryidae > Genus: Leptobrachium > Species: Leptobrachium ailaonicum

Vibrissaphora ailaonica Yang, Chen, and Ma In Yang, Ma, Li, and Chen, 1983, Acta Zootaxon. Sinica, 8: 325. Holotype: KIZ 8200490, by original designation. Type locality: "Xujiaba, Mt. Ailao, Jingdong County, Yunnan, altitude 2400 m", China.

Leptobrachium (Leptobrachium) ailaonicumDubois, 1983, Alytes, 2: 148.

Vibrissaphora ailaonicaZhao and Adler, 1993, Herpetol. China: 125.

Leptobrachium (Vibrissaphora) echinatum Dubois and Ohler, 1998, Dumerilia, 4: 4. Holotype: MNHNP 1998.0116, by original designation. Type locality: "Fan Si Pan mountain range (22° 19′ N, 103° 47′; 2090 m), near Sa Pa, Lao Cai Province, Vietnam". Synonymy by Zheng, Li, and Fu, 2008, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 46: 704.

Leptobrachium (Vibrissaphora) ailaonicumDubois and Ohler, 1998, Dumerilia, 4: 26. Delorme, Dubois, Grosjean, and Ohler, 2006, Alytes, 24: 12Matsui, Hamidy, Murphy, Khonsue, Yambun Imbun, Shimada, Ahmad, Belabut, and Jiang, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 56: 269.

Vibrissaphora echinataFrost, 2004, Amph. Spec. World, vers. 3.0: . Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 443.

Leptobrachium (Vibrissaphora) echinatumDelorme, Dubois, Grosjean, and Ohler, 2006, Alytes, 24: 12; Matsui, Hamidy, Murphy, Khonsue, Yambun Imbun, Shimada, Ahmad, Belabut, and Jiang, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 56: 269.

Leptobrachium ailaonicumRao and Wilkinson, 2008, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 46: 69.

Leptobrachium echinatumRao and Wilkinson, 2008, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 46: 69.

English Names

Ailao Spiny Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 87).

Ailao Moustache Toad (Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 94).

Yunnan Moustach Toad (Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 16).

Distribution

West of the Red River on Mount Ailao and the ridgeline including Mount Wuliang in Yunnan, China, and Fan-Si-Pan in northern Vietnam, 1900-2500 m elevations; east of the Red River in Wenshan and Pingbian, Yunnan, presumably in associated high elevation areas.

Comment

Related to Vibrissaphora boringii, according to the original publication. See account by Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China 149. See also redescription and Vietnam record by Ho, Lathrop, Murphy, and Orlov, 1999, Russ. J. Herpetol., 6: 48-54. Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 94-95, provided a brief account, figure, and map. Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 16, provided specific localities for Vietnam (including Leptobrachium echinatum as a synonym) and (p. 147) a photograph. In the Vibrissaphora boringii group of Fei, Ye, Huang, Jiang, and Xie, 2005, in Fei et al. (eds.), Illust. Key Chinese Amph.: 70. Ho, Lathrop, Murphy, and Orlov, 1999, Russ. J. Herpetol., 6: 48-64, suggested that Vibrissaphora echinata species is a synonym of Vibrissaphora ailaonica although Ohler, Marquis, Swan, and Grosjean, 2000, Herpetozoa, Wien, 13: 78-79, rejected this. But, the molecular evidence of Zheng, Li, and Fu, 2008, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 46: 704, confirmed the synonymy. Yang, 2008, in Yang and Rao (ed.), Amph. Rept. Yunnan: 37, provided a brief account for Yunnan, China. See map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status (as Vibrissaphora echinata) in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 443. See statement of geographic range, habitat, and conservation status (as Vibrissaphora ailaonica) in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 625. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 267-273, provided an account (as Vibrissaphora ailaonica) and a spot map. Zhang, Rao, Yang, Yu, and Wilkinson, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 54: 47-58, reported on molecular phylogeography and suggested that it may be composed of more than one species. Matsui, Hamidy, Murphy, Khonsue, Yambun Imbun, Shimada, Ahmad, Belabut, and Jiang, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 56: 268, noted that the low divergence level between nominal Leptobrachium echinatum and Leptobrachium ailaonicum was not strong evidence for species status. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 161, provided a brief account (as Vibrissaphora ailaonica) including photographs of specimens and habitat. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 189, provided an account (as Vibrissaphora ailaonica), photographs, and a range map for China. 

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