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Pleurodema Tschudi, 1838

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Leptodactylidae > Subfamily: Leiuperinae > Genus: Pleurodema
15 species

Pleurodema Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 47, 84. Type species: Pleurodema bibroni Tschudi, 1838, by monotypy.

Leiuperus Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 420. Type species: Pleurodema bibroni Tschudi, 1838, by original designation. Synonymy by Parker, 1927, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 9, 20: 465; Lynch, 1971, Misc. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 53: 172.

Chianopelas Tschudi, 1845, Arch. Naturgesch., 11: 168. Type species: Not designated, although restricted to either Chianopelis viridis Tschudi, 1845, or Chianopelis maculatus Tschud, 1845. Type locality: "Republica Peruana". Substitute name coined as a junior synonym of Leiuperus marmoratus Duméril and Bibron, 1841. Synonymy by virtue of being coined as a synonym of Leiuperus Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 420, and the species names associated by Tschudi still residing within nominal Leiuperus.

Liyperus Agassiz, 1846, Nomencl. Zool., Fasc. 12: 214. Unjustified emendaiton of Leiuperus Duméril and Bibron, 1841.

Eupomplyx Jan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 54. Type species: Eupomplyx marmoratus Jan, 1857m by monotypy. Nomen nudum attributed to Tschudi and Fitzinger, presumably on the basis of jar label names. Placement in this synonymy on the basis of similarity of spelling with Eupemphix Steindachner, 1863.

Hyobates Jan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 52. Type species: Hyobates fuscomaculatusJan, 1857. Nomen nudum, likely in this synonymy (DRF), attributed to Tschudi and Fitzinger, presumably from jar labels.

Iliobates Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 12. MS name of Fitzinger from jar labels given by Steindachner as a synonym in account of Gomphobates fuscomaculatus.

Lystris Cope, 1869 "1868", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 20: 312. Type species: Lystris brachyops Cope, 1868, by monotypy. Synonymy with Palidicola (in the sense of including Pleurodema) by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 229.

LihyperusO'Shaughnessy, 1875, Zool. Rec., 10: 95. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Peralaimos Jiménez de la Espada, 1875, Vert. Viaje Pacif. Verif. 1862–1865: 163. Type species: Bufo stentor Jiménez de la Espada, 1872, by monotypy. Synonymy with Eupemphix by Kellogg, 1932, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 160: 77.

Somuncuria Lynch, 1978, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 72: 16. Type species: Telmatobius somuncurensis Cei, 1969, by original designation. Synonymy by Faivovich, Basso, Haddad, Rodrigues, Wheeler, Lavilla, and Ferraro: 467.

Incertae Sedis

Metaeus Girard, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 6: 424. Type species: Metaeus timidus Girard, 1853, by monotypy. Duellman and Trueb, 1986, Biol. Amph.: 531, suggested that Metaeus might be a junior synonym of Pleurodema.

Metaeus timidus Girard, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 6: 424. Type(s): Not stated; presumably originally in USNM, ASNP, or the Philadelphia Mus; but not mentioned in subsequent type lists. Type locality: "Valparaiso, Chili". Stated to be close to Bufonella (= Pseudophryne). Girard, 1858, U.S. Explor. Exped. 1838–1842, 20: 96-97, provided a very detailed redescription.

English Names

Four-eyed Frogs (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 84).

El Rincon Stream Frogs (Somuncuria [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 84).

Distribution

South America.

Comment

Duellman and Veloso, 1977, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 64: 1-46, discussed phylogeny within the genus. Argentinian species reviewed by Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 361-384, who arranged species groups for them. McLister, Lougheed, and Bogart, 1991, Canad. J. Zool., 69: 2397-2403, reported on genetic differentiation of Pleurodema tucumanum, Pleurodema cinereum, and Pleurodema borellii. Under Article 30.1.2.a of the 1999 Code requires that Pleurodema (side-band) retain its Greek gender, which is neuter (DRF). Ferraro and Casagranda, 2009, Zootaxa, 2024: 33-55, detailed species' ranges in Argentina. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543-583, in their study of Genbank sequences, suggested that Pleurodema is monophyletic and provided a tree of exemplar species. Faivovich, Basso, Haddad, Rodrigues, Wheeler, Lavilla, and Ferraro: 460–482, reported on the molecular phylogenetics of the group. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 207, placed Somuncuria provisionally in Leptodactylidae due to its likely relationship to Pleurodema (Lynch, 1978, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 72: 16). Grant, Frost, Caldwell, Gagliardo, Haddad, Kok, Means, Noonan, Schargel, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 299: 154, partitioned Leptodactylidae and placed Somuncuria (and Pleurodema) in Leiuperidae.

Contained taxa (15 sp.):

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