Kassina senegalensis (Duméril and Bibron, 1841)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hyperoliidae > Genus: Kassina > Species: Kassina senegalensis

Cystignathus senegalensis Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 418. Syntypes: MNHNP 4507 (2 specimens), according to R. Laurent in Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 225. Type locality: "Sénégal . . . les étangs des environs de Galam", Senegal.

Kassina senegalensisGirard, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 6: 421; Noble, 1924, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 49: 330; Ahl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 451.

Cystignathus argyreivittis Peters, 1854, Ber. Bekannt. Verhandl. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1854: 626. Syntypes: ZSM and ZMB 4426 (according to Ahl, 1930, Zool. Anz., 88: 283). Bauer, Günther, and Klipfel, 1995, in Bauer et al. (eds.), Herpetol. Contr. W.C.H. Peters: 43, did not mention the ZSM syntype. Type localities: "Cabaceira, Boror", Mozambique. Synonymy by Noble, 1924, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 49: 233; Ahl, 1930, Zool. Anz., 88: 283, Perret, 1958, Bull. Inst. Franç. Afr. Noire, Ser. A, 20: 1438; and Schiøtz, 1975, Treefrogs E. Afr.: 233. Considered likely a distinct species by Balletto, Cherchi, and Lanza, 1978, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 11: 241.

Cassina senegalensisGünther, 1864, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1864: 307; Cope, 1865, Nat. Hist. Rev., N.S., 5: 115; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 131

Cassina argyreivittisCope, 1865, Nat. Hist. Rev., N.S., 5: 115; Peters, 1882, Naturwiss. Reise Mossambique, Zool. 3: 157.

Kassina senegalensis var. intermedia Werner, 1898, Jahresber. Abhandl. Naturwiss. Ver. Magdeburg, 1898: 148. Types: MM (presumably destroyed during WWII). Type locality: "Kap-Colonie", presumably in the vicinity of Grahamstown, Eastern Cape Province, Rep. South Africa. Synonymy suggested by Boulenger, 1899, Zool. Rec., 35: 26. Synonymy by Noble, 1924, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 49: 233; Perret, 1958, Bull. Inst. Franç. Afr. Noire, Ser. A, 20: 1438.

Kassina senegalensisNoble, 1924, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 49: 233.

Kassina deserticola Ahl, 1930, Zool. Anz., 88: 280. Syntypes: ZMB 23397 (2 specimens), by original designation; MCZ 17650 (on exchange from ZMB) considered 'cotype' by Barbour and Loveridge, 1946, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 96: 132; presumably this is a paratype. Type locality: "Windhuk [= Windhoek]", Namibia. Synonymy by Parker, 1936, Novit. Zool., 40: 143; Hoffman, 1942, Soöl. Navors. Nas. Mus. Bloemfontein, 1: 113-116; Loveridge, 1957, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 117: 321; and Perret, 1958, Bull. Inst. Franç. Afr. Noire, Ser. A, 20: 1438.

Kassina modesta Ahl, 1930, Zool. Anz., 88: 281. Holotype: ZMB 27374, by original designation. Type locality: "Marianhill [near Durban], [KwaZulu-]Natal, Mariannhiller Mission", South Africa. Synonymy by Loveridge, 1957, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 117: 321; Poynton, 1964, Ann. Natal Mus., 17: 175.

Cassina Angeli De Witte, 1933, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 23: 172. Syntypes: MRAC 11522-23, according to XXX. Type locality: "Lukafu (Kundelungu)", Dem. Rep. Congo. Synonymy by Loveridge, 1936, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 79: 371.

Kassina senegalensis senegalensisHewitt, 1937, Guide Vert. Fauna E. Cape Province, Rept. Amph. Fishes: 109, by implication.

Kassina senegalensis modestaHewitt, 1937, Guide Vert. Fauna E. Cape Province, Rept. Amph. Fishes: 109.

Kassina senegalensis ovamboensis Hoffman, 1942, Soöl. Navors. Nas. Mus. Bloemfontein, 1: 154. Holotype: TMP 17056, by original designation. Type locality: "Oshikango, Ovamboland", Namibia. Subspecies status distinct from Kassina senegalensis senegalensis rejected by Loveridge, 1953, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 110: 329. Laurent, 1957, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 56: 280, regarded this taxon as the same taxon as Kassina argyreivittis and Kassina somalica.

Kassina benueana Monard, 1951, Mem. Inst. Franç. Afr. Noire, 1: 175. Holotype: LCFM 1077. Type locality: "Ngaouganga", Cameroon. Synonymy by Perret, 1958, Bull. Inst. Franç. Afr. Noire, Ser. A, 20: 1438.

Kassina senegalensis angeliLaurent, 1954, Publ. Cult. Companhia Diamantes Angola, 23: 76.

Kassina argyreivittis uelensis Laurent, 1956, Fol. Scient. Afr. Centr., 2: 17. Holotype: RGMC 0065, by original designation; given as MRAC 117111 by Laurent, 1976, Ann. Mus. R. Afr. Cent., Tervuren, Ser. Octavo, Sci. Zool., 213: 40. Type locality: "Buta (Uele)", Dem. Rep. Congo.

Kassina argyreivittis sudanica Laurent, 1956, Fol. Scient. Afr. Centr., 2: 17. Holotype: MRAC 2441,by original designation. Type locality: "Dramba (Uele)", Dem. Rep. Congo.

Kassina argyreivittis ruandae Laurent, 1956, Fol. Scient. Afr. Centr., 2: 18. Holotype: Not stated; MRAC 117117, according to Laurent, 1976, Ann. Mus. R. Afr. Cent., Tervuren, Ser. Octavo, Sci. Zool., 213: 47. Type locality: "Astrida", Rwanda.

Kassina argyreivittisPerret, 1958, Bull. Inst. Franç. Afr. Noire, Ser. A, 20: 1438.

Hylambates senegalensisVan Dijk, 1966, Ann. Natal Mus., 18: 257.

Kassina senegalensis uelensisInger, 1968, Explor. Parc Natl. Garamba, Miss. H. de Saeger, 52: 128.

Kassina senegalensis deserticolaMertens, 1971, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 529: 7.

Kassina senegalensis ruandaeLaurent, 1972, Explor. Parc Natl. Virunga, Ser. 2, 22: 54.

Kassina (Kassina) senegalensisDubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 37.

English Names

Senegal Land Frog (Cystignathus senegalensis: Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 161).

Senegal Frog (Cochran, 1961, Living Amph. World: 169).

Running Frog (Wager, 1965, Frogs S. Afr.: 189; Passmore and Carruthers, 1978, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 19: 7; Passmore and Carruthers, 1979, S. Afr. Frogs: 228).

Bubbling Kassina (Passmore and Carruthers, 1978, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 19: 7; Weldon and Du Preez, 2004, in Minter et al. (eds.), Atlas Frogs S. Afr. Lesotho and Swaziland: 154-156; Du Preez and Carruthers, 2009, Compl. Guide Frogs S. Afr.: 276).

Burbling Kassina (Passmore and Carruthers, 1979, S. Afr. Frogs: 228).

Senegal Running Frog (Broadley, 1973, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 10: 23; Passmore and Carruthers, 1978, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 19: 7; Lambiris, 1990 "1989", Monogr. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino, 10: 154; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 68; Barnett, Emms, and Santoni, 2001, Herpetol. Bull., London, 77: 9).

Senegal Kassina (Pienaar, 1963, Koedoe, 6: 81; Van Dijk, 1978, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 17: 16; Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 191; Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 191; Lötters, Wagner, Bwong, Schick, Malonza, Muchai, Wasonga, and Veith, 2007, Fieldguide Amph. Rept. Kakamega Forest: 36).

Senegal Kassin's Frog (Van Dijk, 1978, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 17: 16).

Common Bubbling Kassina (Measey, Malonza, and Muchai, 2009, Amph. Taita Hills: 54).

Distribution

Savanna region of tropical Africa from Senegal, southern Mali, and Niger to northern Cameroon, Uganda, Eritrea, western Ethiopia, Somalia, and Kenya, thence south to Namibia, Lesotho, and Transvaal and KwaZulu-Natal, Rep. South Africa.

Comment

Possibly composed of several cryptic species according to R. Laurent in Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 225. See discussion in Poynton, 1964, Ann. Natal Mus., 17: 175–178, and Poynton and Broadley, 1987, Ann. Natal Mus., 28: 180–184. Schiøtz, 1975, Treefrogs E. Afr.: 53–58, rejected the recognition of subspecies. Schiøtz, 1999, Treefrogs Afr.: 232–235, provided an account. Rödel, 2000, Herpetofauna W. Afr., 1: 247–254, Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 191–192, Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 191–192, Weldon and Du Preez, 2004, in Minter et al. (eds.), Atlas Frogs S. Afr. Lesotho and Swaziland: 154–156, Pickersgill, 2007, Frog Search: 476–479, and Du Preez and Carruthers, 2009, Compl. Guide Frogs S. Afr.: 276–277, provided accounts. Padial and De la Riva, 2004, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 18: 93, provided records from Mauritania, as did Trape, 2007, Herpetol. Rev., 38: 476. Nago, Grell, Sinsin, and Rödel, 2006, Salamandra, 42: 93-108, provided a record for Benin. Schiøtz, 1963, Vidensk. Medd. Dansk Naturhist. Foren., 125: 80–82, provided records for Nigeria. Emms, Jambang, Bah, Mankali, Rödel, and Barnett, 2005, Herpetol. Bull., London, 94: 6–16, provided records for Gambia. Amiet, 2007, Rev. Suisse Zool., 114: 113–118, discussed geographic variation in this species in Cameroon and distinguished the new species, Kassina wazae, from it. Lötters, Wagner, Bwong, Schick, Malonza, Muchai, Wasonga, and Veith, 2007, Fieldguide Amph. Rept. Kakamega Forest: 36–37, provided an account for the western Kenya population. Bates and Haacke, 2003, Navors. Nas. Mus. Bloemfontein, 19: 140, discussed the species in Lesotho. See account, photograph, and map for Ethiopia and Eritrea by Largen and Spawls, 2010, Amph. Rept. Ethiopia Eritrea: 121–123. Mercurio, 2011, Amph. Malawi: 213–215, provided an account for Malawi. Measey, Malonza, and Muchai, 2009, Amph. Taita Hills: 54-55, provided a brief account and photo for the Taita Hills, Kenya. See account for Cameroon by Amiet, 2012, Rainettes Cameroun: 394–402. Channing, Rödel, and Channing, 2012, Tadpoles of Africa: 238–239, provided information on comparative larval morphology. Harper, Measey, Patrick, Menegon, and Vonesh, 2010, Field Guide Amph. E. Arc Mts. Tanzania and Kenya: 212–213, provided a brief account and photograph. Ohler and Frétey, 2014, J. E. Afr. Nat. Hist., 103: 91, provided a brief discussion of a collection from northern Mozambique.  

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