Hyperolius Rapp, 1842

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hyperoliidae > Genus: Hyperolius
142 species

Eucnemis Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 35, 76. Type species: Hyla horstocki Schlegel, 1837, by monotypy; see Dubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 264, for a discussion of the type species. Homonym of Eucnemis Ahrens, 1812, N. Schrift. Naturforsch. Ges. Halle, 2. (Insecta).

Hyperolius Rapp, 1842, Arch. Naturgesch., 8: 289. Replacement name for Eucnemis Tschudi, 1838.

Epipole Gistel, 1848, Naturgesch. Thierr.: ix. Substitute name for Eucnemis Tschudi, 1838.

EuchnemisBianconi, 1849 "1848", Nuovi Ann. Sci. Nat., Bologna, Ser. 2, 10: 107. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Eucnemis Tschudi, 1838.

Crumenifera Cope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 343. Type species: Crumenifera pusilla Cope, 1862, by monotypy. Synonymy with Rappia by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 127.

Rappia Günther, 1865, Zool. Rec., 1: 130. Substitute name for Hyperolius Rapp, 1842, thought to be preoccupied by Uperolia Gray. Synonymy by Noble, 1924, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 49: 251; Ahl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 254.

CruminiferaHoffmann, 1878, in Bronn (ed.), Die Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs, 6(2): 611. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Crumenifera Cope, 1863.

Nesionixalus Perret, 1976, Arq. Mus. Bocage, Ser. 2, 6: 29. Type species: Hyperolius thomensis Bocage, 1886, by original designation. Synonymy by Drewes, 1984, Occas. Pap. California Acad. Sci., 139: 52.

Chlorolius Perret, 1988, Bull. Soc. Neuchatel. Sci. Nat., 111: 46. Type species: Hyperolius koehleri Mertens, 1940, by original designation. Synonymy by Amiet, 2012, Rainettes Cameroun: 362. Synonymy confirmed by Portik and Blackburn, 2016, Evolution, 70: 2024. 

Nomina inquirenda - Name(s) unassigned to a living or extinct population

Rappia dombeensis Tornier, 1896, in Möbius (ed.), Deutsch Ost-Afr., 3: 150. Syntypes: ZMB 6465 (Dombe) and 9173 (Chinchoxo) and a third in the ZMH (Port Natal), by original designation. Type locality: "Dombe". "Chinchoxo", Tanzania, and "Port Natal", Rep. South Africa. Inadvertent instantiation of name credited by Tornier to Bocage.

Rappia granulata Tornier, 1896, in Möbius (ed.), Deutsch Ost-Afr., 3: 151. Syntypes: ZMB 4811 (2 specimens), by original designation. Type locality: "Tette", Tanzania. Inadvertent instantiation of name credited by Tornier to Peters.

Rappia fimbriata Tornier, 1896, in Möbius (ed.), Deutsch Ost-Afr., 3: 153. Syntypes: ZMB, by original designation. Type locality: "Gowe Limbareni" and "Bukova", Tanzania. Inadvertent instantiation of name credited by Tornier to Duméril and Bibron.

Hyperolius papyri Werner, 1908 "1907", Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 116: 1903. Holotype: NHMW 14847, according to Häupl and Tiedemann, 1978, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 2: 28, and Häupl, Tiedemann, and Grillitsch, 1994, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 9: 33. Type locality: " Khor Attar und Mongalla . . . Gondokoro"; locality associated with holotype is Gondoroko, South Sudan. Synonymy with Hyperolius nasutus by Noble, 1924, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 49: 259; Schiøtz, 1967, Spolia Zool. Mus. Haun., 25: 139. Placed incertae sedis pending resolution whether this is a distinctive taxon or synonymous with Hyperolius nasutus, Hyperolius acuticeps, or Hyperolius viridis. See Channing, Moyer, and Burger, 2002, Afr. Zool., 37: 97. In the Hyperolius nasutus group of Amiet, 2005, Rev. Suisse Zool., 112: 271-310.

English Names

Reed Frogs (Broadley, 1971, Puku, 6: 121; Passmore and Carruthers, 1978, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 19: 7; Passmore and Carruthers, 1979, S. Afr. Frogs: 240; Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 144).

Sedge Frogs (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 71).

Lily Frogs (Passmore and Carruthers, 1978, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 19: 7; Passmore and Carruthers, 1979, S. Afr. Frogs: 240).

African Reed Frogs (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 66).

Gulf Frogs (Nesionixalus: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 69).

Koehler's Green Frogs (Chlorolius: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 66).

Distribution

Savanna, farmbush, and forests of Africa, south of the Sahara.

Comment

See Poynton and Broadley, 1987, Ann. Natal Mus., 28: 193–227, for discussion of south-central African species, and Lambiris, 1988, Lammergeyer, 39: 134–147, for species of KwaZulu-Natal, Rep. South Africa and a discussion of taxonomic problems in the genus. Schiøtz, 1999, Treefrogs Afr., provided accounts, keys, maps, and photographs of most species and discussed species groups, especially the very difficult Hyperolius viridiflavus complex. Wieczorek, Drewes, and Channing, 2000, J. Biogeograph., 27: 1231–1243, provided a molecular phylogeny of members of Hyperolius and redefined species within the Hyperolius viridiflavus superspecies. Wieczorek, Drewes, and Channing, 2001, Amphibia-Reptilia, 22: 155–166, reported on phylogenetics and taxonomy of the Hyperolius viridiflavus complex. Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 144–185, and Du Preez and Carruthers, 2009, Compl. Guide Frogs S. Afr.: 236–271,provided keys and accounts for all species of southern Africa. Wieczorek, Channing, and Drewes, 1998, Herpetol. J., 8: 29–34, discussed the history and varying classifications of the Hyperolius viridiflavus complex. Amiet, 2005, Rev. Suisse Zool., 112: 271–310, dicussed taxonomic problems in the Hyperolius nasutus complex and made a number of taxonomic changes. Nesionixalus considered a synonym of Hyperolius by Drewes, 1984, Occas. Pap. California Acad. Sci., 139: 52, who considered it, therefore to be in Hyperoliinae. Generic status revalidated by Perret, 1988, Bull. Soc. Neuchatel. Sci. Nat., 111: 35–48, who considered it to be in Hyperoliinae. Previously, Dubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 260, placed Nesionixalus in Leptopelinae (now part of Arthroleptidae). Schiøtz, 1999, Treefrogs Afr.: 309 (who provided accounts of most of the species recognized at the time), and Drewes, 2000, Copeia, 2000: 624–626, discussed the controversy surrounding the separation of Nesionixalus from Hyperolius. Mercurio, 2011, Amph. Malawi: 153–211, provided accounts and an identification key for the species of Malawi. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543–583, provided an estimate of phylogeny of a number of exemplar species. See accounts for Cameroon species by Amiet, 2012, Rainettes Cameroun: 166–371. Channing, Rödel, and Channing, 2012, Tadpoles of Africa: 201–228, reported on comparative tadpole morphology. Loader, Lawson, Portik, and Menegon, 2015, BMC Res. Notes, 8 (Art. 167): 1–16, revised and provided a key to the species of the Hyperolius spinigularis group of East Africa.

Contained taxa (142 sp.):

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