Trachycephalus typhonius (Linnaeus, 1758)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hylidae > Subfamily: Lophyohylinae > Genus: Trachycephalus > Species: Trachycephalus typhonius

Rana typhonia Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 211. Type(s): Not designated, although UUZM 134 was considered the holotype by Lavilla, Langone, Padial, and de Sá, 2010, Zootaxa, 2671: 22. Type locality: "America", restricted by Lavilla, Langone, Padial, and de Sá, 2010, Zootaxa, 2671: 23, to "[likely] number 1, Kerkplein Street, Paranamaribo, Suriname" but possibly "Brouwershaven . . ., on the left bank of the Wajamo River, . . . about nine parasangs from Pramaribo". Synonymy in error with Hoplobatrachus tigerinus by Andersson, 1900, Bih. K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 26: 1-29, although subsequent workers (until 1989) followed Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 207, to use this name for the species currently known as Bufo margaritifer; this synonymy discussed by Hoogmoed, 1989, in Fontenet (ed.), Treballs Ictiol. Herpetol., 2: 167-180; and Hoogmoed, 1990, in Peters and Hutterer (eds.), Vert. Tropics: 113-123. Lavilla, Langone, Padial, and de Sá, 2010, Zootaxa, 2671: 17-30, subsequently discussed the status and confusing history of this name and applied it to the species formerly known as Trachycephalus venulosus. Although nomenclaturally the name and its combinations end up in this synonymy all such references apply to specimens not of this species, another reason that nominal synonymies (as employed in ASW) should not be used as surrogates for names applied to particular evolutionary taxa (DRF). 

Rana vesicaria Fermin, 1765, Hist. Nat. Hollande Equinox.: 15. Type(s): Not designated nor known to exist. Type locality: "Hollande Equinoxiale" (= Surinam). Synonymy by Lavilla, Langone, Padial, and de Sá, 2010, Zootaxa, 2671: 24. Placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Works by Opinion 660 (Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 187-190).

Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 31. Type(s): Originally including by indication the frog illustrated by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: pl. 72, fig. 4. This set aside by Anonymous, 1958, Opin. Declar. Internatl. Comm. Zool. Nomencl., 19: 169-200, which placed this name on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology and designated as neotype the type of Hyla zonata Spix (figured by Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 41, pl. 12, fig. 1). Type locality: "Indiis"; changed by neotype designation to "arbustis et arboribus ad flumen Teffé", Brazil; restricted by Duellman, 1956, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 96: 37, to Lago Teffe at the mouth of the Rio Teffe, where it empties into the Rio Solimoes, Amazonas, Brazil. Synonymy by Lavilla, Langone, Padial, and de Sá, 2010, Zootaxa, 2671: 17-30.

Hyla viridi-fusca Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 34. Type(s) By indication including frogs illustration by Merian, 1705, Diss. Generat. Metamorph. Insect. Surinam.: Pl 56. Largest specimen, and adult male on the lower center of this plate designated lectotype by Dubois, 1995, Dumerilia, 2: 58. Type locality: "Surinam". Considered a junior synonym of Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 100, and Dubois, 1995, Dumerilia, 2: 58, as first revisor. (Note: although clearly a Trachycephalus, the frog illustrated could also be assigned to other species in the Surinam region—DRF.)

Hyla tibiatrix Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 34. Syntypes: By indication including specimens figured by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: pl. 71, fig. 1, 2. Specimen shown in fig. 1 of Seba designated lectotype by Dubois, 1995, Dumerilia, 2: 60. Type locality: Not stated; designated as Surinam by Rivero, 1961, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 126: 130. Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 104; Peters, 1872, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 219. Suppressed under the plenary powers for purposes of synonymy but not homonymy (see Anonymous, 1958, Opin. Declar. Internatl. Comm. Zool. Nomencl., 19: 169-200).

Rana reticularis Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 296, 458. Substitute name for Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768. Rejected as published in a nonbinominal work by Opinion 2104, Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: 55.

Bufo typhoniusSchneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 207. Concept based on Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: pl. 71, fig. 6-8.

Hyla venulosaDaudin, 1800, Hist. Nat. Quad. Ovip., Livr. 2: 17. Sonnini de Manoncourt and Latreille, 1801 "An. X", Hist. Nat. Rept., 2: 176; Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 35.

Hyla intermixta Daudin In Sonnini de Manoncourt and Latreille, 1801 "An. X", Hist. Nat. Rept., 2: 182. Holotype: Presumably specimen illustrated in fig. 3 on pl. 4 of Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto; Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph. 170, cited, apparently incorrectly, pl. 4, fig. 4 (which is labeled Hyla variegata); presumably originally in MNHNP, but not recently confirmed. Type locality: Stated to be unknown; given as "Surinam" by Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 20. Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Dubois, 1995, Dumerilia, 2: 61.

Rana zebra var. venulosaShaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 124.

Hyla variegata Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 20. Type(s): Not formally designated, but including animal figured on pl. 4 of the original volume and the frog pictured in pl. 56 of Merian, 1705, Diss. Generat. Metamorph. Insect. Surinam., and specimens of Hyla viridifusca Laurenti, 1768. Type locality: "Surinam". Synonymy with Hyla viridifusca Laurenti by  Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 20.

Rana meriana Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 133. Types: Description based in part on description and pl. (56) of series of treefrogs from Surinam by Merian, 1705, Diss. Generat. Metamorph. Insect. Surinam.: 56. Largest specimen, and adult male on the lower center of this plate designated lectotype by Dubois, 1995, Dumerilia, 2: 58. Type locality: "Surinam" and "Jamaica". Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Gravenhorst, 1807, Vergleich. Uebersicht Linn. Neuern Zool. Syst.: 432; Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 561.

Calamita tibicen Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 172. Types: Based on several references, including figures 1-3 in fig. 71 of Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: pl. 71, fig. 3 being the type of Hyla aurantiaca Laurenti, 1768). Dubois, 1995, Dumerilia, 2: 60, in order to stabilize nomenclature designated the lectotype of Hyla tibiatrix Laurenti, 1758, as the lectotype of Calamita tibicen. Type locality: America; restricted to Surinam by lectotype designation. Synonymy by XXX.

Hyla zonata Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 41. Type(s): Not designated but including specimen figured on pl. 12, fig. 1 of the original publication; holotype was ZSM 48/0, now lost, according to Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 370, and confirmed by Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 170. Type locality: "flumen Teffé", Amazonas, Brazil. Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 561; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 41; Peters, 1872, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 219, 226. Placed on the Official List of Rejected and Invalid Specific Names in Zoology by Anonymous, 1958, Opin. Declar. Internatl. Comm. Zool. Nomencl., 19: 172.

Hyla bufonia Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 42. Type(s): Not designated, but including animal figured on pl. 12, fig. 2 of the original publication; holotype originally in ZSM, now lost according to Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 371, and confirmed by Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 166. Type locality: "Egca", Tefé, Amazonas, Brazil. Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 561; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 104.

Hypsiboas bufoniaWagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 200.

Hypsiboas zonataWagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 200.

Hypsiboas venulosaWagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 201.

Auletris tibiatrixWagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 201.

Hypsiboas venulosusTschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 72.

Dendrohyas tibiatrixTschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 34, 74.

Osilophus typhoniusTschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 52, 89. Based on specimens of Rhinella margaritifera.

Cystignathus typhoniusDuméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 402. Not suggested as a new name and synonym of Rana fusca Schneider as posited by Heyer, 1978, Sci. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 29: 30, but a new combination nomenclaturally based on Rana typhonia Daudin.

Hyla zonalisDuméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 561. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Hyla zonata.

Phrynohyas zonataFitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 30.

Phrynohyas (Acrodytes) venulosaFitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 30.

Leptodactylus typhoniusFitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 31. Girard, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 6: 420. Based on specimens of Rana fusca Schneider.

Hyla lichenosa Günther, 1858, Arch. Naturgesch., 24: 327. Syntypes: BMNH (11 specimens) according to Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 102; BMNH 1947.2.23.40-43 (formerly 54.11.13.14-17) (Veracruz) and 1947.2.23.29 (formerly 56.3.17.24) (Cordova) according to Condit, 1964, J. Ohio Herpetol. Soc., 4: 91; BMNH 1936.3.12.119, designated lectotype by Smith and Taylor, 1948, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 194: 75. Type localities: "Mexico" and "Amazonen-Strom"; later rendered as "South America", "Amazons", "America", "Vera Cruz", "Cordova", and "Mexico" by Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 102; lectotype from Amazonas, Brazil. Restricted to "Amazon River", Brazil by Smith and Taylor, 1950, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 33: 363. Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 364.

Scytopis hebes Cope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 354. Holotype: USNM 5837 according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 78. Type locality: Not mentioned specifically, but the Page Expedition visited many localities now in Brazil, northeastern Argentina, and southern Paraguay, along the drainages of the Paraná and Paraguai Rivers; restricted to the vicinity of Asunción, Paraguay, by Duellman, 1956, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 96: 16. Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 365; Günther, 1901, Biol. Centr. Amer., Rept. Batr., Vol. 7, Part 166: 272; Duellman, 1966, Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist., 17: 277. Recognized by Duellman, 1956, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 96: 16.

Scytopis venulosusCope, 1866, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 85.

Otilophus typhoniusPeters, 1871, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1871: 403. Based on specimens of Rhinella margaritifera.

Oxyrhynchus typhoniusJiménez de la Espada, 1875, Vert. Viaje Pacif. Verif. 1862–1865: 178. Based on specimens of Rhinella margaritifera.

Oxyrhynchus typhoniusJiménez de la Espada, 1875, Vert. Viaje Pacif. Verif. 1862–1865: 178. Based on specimens of Rhinella margaritifera.

Leptodactylus typhoniusBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 246. Based on Rana fusca Schneider.

Hyla palpebrogranulata Andersson, 1906, Ark. Zool., 3(12): 14. Holotype: ZIUS A133, according to Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 155. Type locality: "Tatarenda, [Santa Cruz Department,] Chaco, Bolivia". Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Duellman, 1971, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 4: 11.

Hyla wettsteini Ahl, 1933, Zool. Anz., 104: 25. Holotype: NHMW 19013, according to Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 155, and Häupl and Tiedemann, 1978, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 2: 20. Type locality: "Taperinha bei Santarem", Pará, Brazil. Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Duellman, 1971, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 4: 11.

Hyla zernyi Ahl, 1933, Zool. Anz., 104: 27. Holotype: NHMW 16503, according to Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 155, and Häupl and Tiedemann, 1978, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 2: 20. Type locality: "Taperinha bei Santarem", Pará, Brazil. Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Duellman, 1971, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 4: 11.

Bufo typhonius typhoniusLeavitt, 1933, Copeia, 1933: 8. Based on Rhinella margaritifera.

Hyla modestaMertens, 1952, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 487: 30.

Bufo (= Otylophus) typhoniusCei, 1953, Arch. Zool. Ital. Torino, 38: 511. Based on specimens Rhinella margaritifera.

Phrynohyas hebesDuellman, 1956, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 96: 16.

Phrynohyas inflata — Duellman, 1956, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 96: 22.

Phrynohyas ingens Duellman, 1956, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 96: 22. Holotype: UMMZ 55570, by original designation. Type locality: "La Fría, Pueblo Nuevo, Depto. Zulia, Venezuela". Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Duellman, 1971, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 4: 11.

Phrynohyas zonata — Duellman, 1956, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 96: 35.

Hyla tibiatrix ingensRivero, 1961, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 126: 131.

Hyla tibiatrix tibiatrixRivero, 1961, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 126: 127.

Hyla adenoderma Lutz, 1968, Pearce-Sellards Ser., 10: 3. Holotype: MNRJ 4054, by original designation. Type locality: "banks of the Rio Branco, a sub-tributary of Rio Madeira in Rondonia, Brazil . . . . The locality lies approximately between 8° to 12 S. and 62° to 63° 30′ W." Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Duellman, 1971, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 4: 11.

Argenteohyla altamazonica Henle, 1981, Amphibia-Reptilia, 2: 134. Holotype: ZFMK 29993, by original designation. Type locality: "Peru; Pucallpa, ca. 200 m NN". Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Duellman, 1985 "1984", Amphibia-Reptilia, 5: : 413.

Trachycephalus typhonius — Lavilla, Langone, Padial, and de Sá, 2010, Zootaxa, 2671: 17.

English Names

Merian Frog (Rana meriana [no longer recognized]: Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 133).

Common Tree Frog (Hyla tibiatrix [no longer recognized]: Lacépède, 1802, Nat. Hist. Ovip. Quadruped. (Kerr transl.): 267).

Warty Tree Frog (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 67, as Phrynohyas venulosa).

Marbled Tree Frog (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 67, as Phrynohyas venulosa).

Veined Frog (Lacépède, 1802, Nat. Hist. Ovip. Quadruped. (Kerr transl.): 238, as Rana venulosa).

Veined Treefrog (Liner, 1994, Herpetol. Circ., 23: 25; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 61; Lee, 1996, Amph. Rept. Yucatan Peninsula: 101; Lee, 2000, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Maya World: 107; Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 26, as Phrynohyas venulosa and Trachycephalus venulosus).

Lost Treefrog (Hyla intermixta [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 55).

Laurenti's Brown Treefrog (Hyla viridifusca [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 58).

Vein-eyed Glue Frog (Eterovick and Sazima, 2004, Anf. Serra do Cipó: 59, as Phrynohyas venulosa).

Amazon Milk Frog (Trade name).

Distribution

Amazon Basin of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, and Brazil, Guianas, and south to Paraná (Brazil), Paraguay, northern Argentina; Trinidad and Tobago.

Comment

Lavilla, Langone, Padial, and de Sá, 2010, Zootaxa, 2671: 17-30, discussed the complex nomenclatural issues surrounding the identity of the name Rana typhonia Linnaeus, 1758, and assigned the name as a senior synonym of Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, thereby changing the name from Trachycephalus venulosus to Trachycephalus typhonius. See Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 444–450 Rodríguez and Duellman, 1994, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 22: 42–43, provided a brief account for the Iquitos region of northeastern Peru as Phrynohyas venulosaLescure and Marty, 2000, Collect. Patrimoines Nat., Paris, 45: 198–199, provided a photo and brief account for French Guiana, as Phrynohyas venulosa. Köhler, 2000, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 48: 108, provided a brief account, as Phrynohyas venulosa. Kenny, 1969, Stud. Fauna Curaçao and other Caribb. Is., 29: 52–54 (as Phrynohyas zonata), and Murphy, 1997, Amph. Rept. Trinidad Tobago: 73–74, provided accounts for Trinidad and Tobago, as Phrynohyas venulosa. Brusquetti and Lavilla, 2006, Cuad. Herpetol., 20: 12, briefly discussed range in Paraguay. Eterovick and Sazima, 2004, Anf. Serra do Cipó: 59–60, provided a photograph and brief account (as Phrynohyas venulosa).See account for Surinam population by Ouboter and Jairam, 2012, Amph. Suriname: 200–202. Soares, Iop, and Santos, 2012, Check List, 8: 817–818, extended the range to Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and commented on the range. See Cole, Townsend, Reynolds, MacCulloch, and Lathrop, 2013, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 125: 419–420, for brief account and records for Guyana..

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