Trachycephalus "vermiculatus" (Cope, 1877)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hylidae > Subfamily: Lophyohylinae > Genus: Trachycephalus > Species: Trachycephalus "spilomma"

Hyla vermiculata Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 563. Holotype: MNHNP 4797, according to Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 24. Type locality: North America; by implication of discussion in text. Synonymy with Rana venulosa by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 365. Status unclear. 

Hyla spilomma Cope, 1877, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 17: 86. Types: Deposition not stated; presumably USNM and now lost according to Kellogg, 1932, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 160: 177. Type locality: "Cosamaloapam[, ] Vera Cruz", Mexico. Synonymy with Rana venulosa by Kellogg, 1932, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 160: 176. Placed on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology by Anonymous, 1958, Opin. Declar. Internatl. Comm. Zool. Nomencl., 19: 172.

Hyla paenulata Brocchi, 1879, Bull. Soc. Philomath., Paris, Ser. 7, 3: 21. Holotype: MNHNP, apparently lost as not mentioned in subsequent type list. Type locality: "versant occidental du Guatemala". Synonymy with Rana venulosa by Günther, 1901, Biol. Centr. Amer., Rept. Batr., Vol. 7, Part 166: 272.

Hyla nigropunctata Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 366. Syntypes: Including BMNH 59.9.20.2 and 81.10.31.20, and several of the syntypes of Hyla lichenosa implied by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 366; and according to Kellogg, 1932, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 160: 177. Type localities: "Jalapa" (1 specimen), "Veracruz" (4 specimens), "Cordova" (1 specimen), and "Mexico" (3 specimens). Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Kellogg, 1932, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 160: 176.

Acrodytes inflata Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 30: 63. Holotype: EHT-HMS 17890, by original designation; now FMNH 100046 according to Marx, 1976, Fieldiana, Zool., 69: 42. Type locality: "near La Venta, Guerrero", Mexico. Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Duellman, 1966, Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist., 17: 277, and McDiarmid, 1968, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 134: 1-25.

Acrodytes spilomma — Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 30: 64.

Acrodytes modesta Taylor and Smith, 1945, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 95: 594. Holotype: USNM 115013, by original designation. Type locality: "Cruz de Piedra, near Acacoyagua, Chiapas, Mexico". Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Duellman, 1966, Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist., 17: 277.

Phrynohyas latifasciata Duellman, 1956, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 96: 24. Holotype: BMNH 83.2.7.1, by original designation. Type locality: "Presidio, Sinaloa, Mexico". Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by McDiarmid, 1968, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 134: 2.

Phrynohyas modesta — Duellman, 1956, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 96: 25.

Phrynohyas spilomma — Duellman, 1956, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 96: 28.

Phrynohyas corasterias Shannon and Humphrey, 1957, Herpetologica, 13: 15. Holotype: FAS 11307, by original designation; now UIMNH 67060 according to Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 155. Type locality: "4.8 miles east of San Blas, Nayarit", Mexico. Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Duellman, 1961, Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist., 15: 45.

Trachycephalus "vermiculatus"  — Here. 11 Nov 2015. A place-holder "taxon" for all names available for former Trachycephalus typhonius from Chocoan South America to southern and eastern Mexico. See discussion under Trachycephalus typhonius

English Names

Milky Treefrog (Campbell, 1998, Amph. Rept. N. Guatemala Yucatan Belize: 83, as Phrynohyas venulosa).

Distribution

Lowlands of tropical Mexico, Central America (to 2500 m in Guatemala), to Chocoan Ecuador and likely into northern Venezuela in the Maracaibo region. See comment. 

Comment

See comment under Trachycephalus typhonius. Ron, Venegas, Ortega-Andrade, Gagliardi-Urrutia, and Salerno, 2016, ZooKeys, 630: 115–154, initiated the nomenclatural breakup of nominal Trachycephalus typhonius, which, at least for the moment, left populations west of the Andes to southern and eastern Mexico without a name(s), although it is abundantly clear that none of these populations will be conspecific with Trachycephalus typhonius. See Duellman, 1970, Monogr. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas: 163–172, Lee, 1996, Amph. Rept. Yucatan Peninsula: 101–104; Campbell, 1998, Amph. Rept. N. Guatemala Yucatan Belize: 83–84, and Lee, 2000, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Maya World: 107–109, for accounts, all as Phrynohyas venulosa. See accounts, as Phrynohyas venulosa, by Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 340–342, and McCranie and Wilson, 2002, Amph. Honduras: 281-285. Köhler, Vesely, and Greenbaum, 2005 "2006", Amph. Rept. El Salvador: 39–40, provided an account (as Phrynohyas venulosa, and for El Salvador) and a color photograph. McCranie, 2007, Herpetol. Rev., 38: 39, detailed the departmental distribution in Honduras.  Ramírez-Valverde, Sarmiento-Rojas, Meza-Parral, and Martínez-Campo, 2009, Herpetol. Rev., 40: 447–448, as Trachycephalus venulosus, provided a record for Puebla, Mexico, and commented on the range.  Lemos-Espinal and Dixon, 2013, Amphibians and Reptiles of San Luis Potosí: 60–61, provided an account for San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 270–271, provided a brief summary of natural history and  provided a range map and photograph for this species (as Trachycephalus venulosus) in Central America. Sunyer, Martínez-Fonseca, Salazar-Saavedra, Galindo-Uribe, and Obando, 2014, Mesoam. Herpetol., 1: 170, provided records for the departments of Carazo, León, and Río San Juan, Nicaragua. Lemos-Espinal and Smith, 2015, Check List, 11(1642): 1–11, noted the occurrence of the species in Hidalgo, Mexico, without providing a specific locality. Schulze, Jansen, and Köhler, 2015, Zootaxa, 4016: 51–53, described, diagnosed, and pictured the larva. Trachycephalus quadrangulum from Chocoan Ecuador may be conspecific with populations in western Colombia and even into Central America, although that is just conjecture at this point (DRF). 

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