Dryophytes japonicus (Günther, 1859)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hylidae > Subfamily: Hylinae > Genus: Dryophytes > Species: Dryophytes japonicus

Hyla arborea var. japonica Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 109. Syntypes: BMNH 44.2.22.107 (3 specimens), according to Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 32. Type locality: "Japan".

Hyla japonicaCamerano, 1879, Atti Accad. Sci. Torino, Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat., 14: 895.

Hyla arborea var. japonicaBoettger, 1885, Ber. Offenbach. Ver. Naturkd., 24–25: 164.

Hyla stepheni Boulenger, 1888 "1887", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1887: 579. Holotype: BMNH 1947.2.30.99 (formerly 89.11.8.5) according to Condit, 1964, J. Ohio Herpetol. Soc., 4: 95. Type locality: "Port Hamilton, Corea [= Korea]". Synonymy with Hyla japonica by Pope and Boring, 1940, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull., 15: 35. Synonymy with Hyla ussuriensis by Yang, 1962, Korean J. Zool., 5: 35-38. Possibly a senior synonym of Hyla suweonensis according to Kuramoto, 1980, Copeia, 1980: 104-105. Yang, Kim, Min, and Suh, 2001, Monogr. Korean Amph.: 43, placed this back into the synonymy of Hyla japonica (sensu lato).

Hyla arborea japonicaNikolskii, 1918, Fauna Rossii, Zemnovodnye: 145; Pope, 1931, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 61: 462.

Hyla arborea ussuriensis Nikolskii, 1918, Fauna Rossii, Zemnovodnye: 148. Holotype: Not stated; MNKNU 26332 according to Vedmederya, Zinenko, and Barabanov, 2009, Russ. J. Herpetol., 16: 204. Type locality: Environs of the village of Chernigovka in the Maritime Territory [Russia]. Given as "Chernigovka railway station, Primorskaya oblast", Russia by Vedmederya, Zinenko, and Barabanov, 2009, Russ. J. Herpetol., 16: 204. Synonymy with Hyla stepheni by Yang, 1962, Korean J. Zool., 5: 35-38. Synonymy with Hyla japonica confirmed by Li, Wang, Nian, Litvinchuk, Wang, Li, Rao, and Klaus, 2015, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 87: 80. 

Hyla arborea stepheniOkada, 1928, Chosen Nat. Hist. Soc. J., 6: 24; Okada, 1931, Tailless Batr. Japan. Empire: 63; Yang, 1962, Korean J. Zool., 5: 35.

Hyla sodei-campi Kostin, 1935, Annot. Zool. Japon., 15: 28. Holotype: MNMH, according to Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 32. Type locality: "Mankou of the Western line of North Manchurian Railway (Chinese Eastern Rly.) in Soda Steppe, N. Manchuria", China. See also discussion of type locality of Salamandrella keyserlingii var. sodei-campi.

Hyla ussuriensisFei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 142-143.

Hyla japonica stepheniKuzmin and Semenov, 2006, Cat. Amph. Rept. Russia: 26.

Hyla japonica japonicaKuzmin and Semenov, 2006, Cat. Amph. Rept. Russia: 26, by implication.

Hyla heinzsteinitzi Grach, Plesser, and Werner, 2007, J. Nat. Hist., London, 41: 714. Holotype: HUJ-R 20193, by original designation. Type locality: "Mamilla reservoir, IG 1710 1317, Jerusalem, Israel". Synonymy by Duellman, Marion, and Hedges, 2016, Zootaxa, 4104: 23. 

Hyla (Dryophrytes) japonica — Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 331, by implication. 

Dryophytes japonicus — Duellman, Marion, and Hedges, 2016, Zootaxa, 4104: 23. 

English Names

Far Eastern Treefrog (Borkin and Kuzmin, 1988, in Vorobyeva and Darevsky (eds.), Amph. Rept. Mongolian P. Rep.: 248).

Japanese Tree Toad (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 58).

Japanese Treefrog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 56; Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 291).

Japanese Treefrog (Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 58).

Northeast China Tree Toad (Hyla ussuriensis [no longer recognized]: Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 142).

Distribution

Japan and nearby islands, Korea, northern and northeastern Mongolia, northeastern China (Heilongjing, Jiling, Liaoning, and Nei Mongol), and Far Eastern Russia from Lake Baikal through the Amur and Ussuri river basins southeast to the coast, southern Sakhalin I. and Kunashir I.; introduced into the vicinity of Jerusalem, Israel. See comment. 

Comment

In the Hyla eximia group of Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 102. Li, Wang, Nian, Litvinchuk, Wang, Li, Rao, and Klaus, 2015, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 87: 80–90, found this species to be in their Hyla japonica group. Kuramoto, 1980, Copeia, 1980: 106, distinguished this species from Hyla suweonensis, and transferred this species into the Hyla eximia group. See Kuramoto, 1984, Copeia, 1984: 609-616, and Nishioka, Sumida, and Borkin, 1990, Sci. Rep. Lab. Amph. Biol. Hiroshima Univ., 10: 93-124, for additional evidence of distinctiveness from other Eurasian Hyla. Maeda and Matsui, 1990, Frogs Toads Japan, Ed. 2: 36-39, provided an acount for Japan. Matsui, 2000, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B—Comp. Biochem., 126: 247-256, suggested that Hyla japonica is a species complex. Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 58-60, provided an account, map, and photograph. See account by Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 291-296, who considered Hyla stepheni and Hyla ussuriensis to be synonyms of Hyla japonica. Zhang, 2002, Sichuan J. Zool., 21: 198-199, provided a key to differentiate this species from others in China. Yang, Kim, Min, and Suh, 2001, Monogr. Korean Amph.: 54-55, provided a brief account, map and figure for South Korea. Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 142-143, removed Hyla ussuriensis from the synonymy of Hyla japonica where it had been placed by Pope and Boring, 1940, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull., 15: 35, and where it was replaced by Kuzmin and Maslova, 2003, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 8: 179-181, who discussed the controversy of how many species existed of treefrogs in China, Russia, and Japan, who noted that further research might support the view that one species occurs in Japan (Hyla japonica), another in northern China and Far Eastern Russia (Hyla stepheni), and another in central and eastern China (Hyla immaculata)—the position of Fei, Ye, Huang, Jiang, and Xie, 2005, in Fei et al. (eds.), Illust. Key Chinese Amph.: 99. Although it is likely that more than one species exists under this name, the systematics are obfuscated by national treatments without reference to the entire range. A complete revision needs to be completed, taking into account all populations and type localities, employing both molecular and morphologica evidence (DRF). Hyla suweonensis may be a synonym of Hyla stepheni (= Hyla ussuriensis) by implication of statements by Kuramoto, 1980, Copeia, 1980: 104-105. In the Hyla immaculata group of Fei, Ye, Huang, Jiang, and Xie, 2005, in Fei et al. (eds.), Illust. Key Chinese Amph.: 99, who distinguished Hyla ussuriensis from Hyla immaculata, Hyla japonica, and Hyla sanchiangensis. Hyla ussuriensis was removed from the synonymy of Hyla japonica by Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 142-143, where it had been placed by Pope and Boring, 1940, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull., 15: 35, and Kuzmin and Maslova, 2003, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 8: 177. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 258, provided a brief account including photographs. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 292, provided an account (as Hyla ussuriensis), illustrations, and a range map for China. Terbish, Munkhbayar, and Munkhbaatar, 2013, Guide Amph. Rept. Mongolia: 18–19, provided a brief account, photograph, and spot map for Mongolia. Litvinchuk, Schepina, Munkhbaatar, Munkhbayar, Borkin, Kazakov, and Skorinov, 2014, Russ. J. Herpetol., 21: 303–314, discussed the range and conservation status in Mongolia and Transbaikalia (Russia).  The introduced population in Israel is sympatric with Hyla savignyi according to the original publication. Stöck, Dubey, Klütsch, Litvinchuk, Scheidt, and Perrin, 2008, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 49: 1019-1024, suggested on the basis of mtDNA that Hyla heinsteinitzi might be based on introduced populations of Hyla japonica and suggested additional work is warranted. Werner, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 57: 955-956, disputed this suggestion but this was rejected by Stöck, Dubey, Klütsch, Litvinchuk, Scheidt, and Perrin, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 57: 957-958. Dufresnes, Litvinchuk, Borzée, Jang, Li, Miura, Perrin, and Stöck, 2016, BMC Evol. Biol., 16(253): 1–14, provided a molecular phylogeography study that suggested strongly that at least two and possibly more species are involved, with ranges of: 1) Honshu and Hokkaid, Japan, and the Russian Far East islands of Kunashir and Sakhalin; and 2) southwestern Japan, Korean peninsula, Transiberian China, Russia, and Mongolia. Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 859–861, provided an account (as Hyla ussuriensis, without comment on the earlier synonymy of this name), photograph, and spot map for China.    

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