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Hylinae Rafinesque, 1815

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hylidae > Subfamily: Hylinae
678 species

Hylarinia Rafinesque, 1815, Analyse Nat.: 78. Type genus: Hylaria Rafinesque, 1814 (an unjustified emendation of Hyla Laurenti, 1768).

Hylina Gray, 1825, Ann. Philos., London, Ser. 2, 10: 213. Type genus: Hyla Laurenti, 1768. Suggested as a subfamily.

HyladaeBoie, 1828, Isis von Oken, 21: 363.

HylenaeGray, 1829, Isis von Oken, 22: 203.

HyladinaBonaparte, 1838, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 22): 117; Bonaparte, 1838, Nuovi Ann. Sci. Nat., Bologna, 1: 393; Bonaparte, 1840, Nuovi Ann. Sci. Nat., Bologna, 4: 100 (p. 11 in offprint); Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 394.

HylaeTschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 25.

HylaeformesDuméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: plate opposite page 53, 491. Explicit non-Latinized family-group name.

Dryophytae Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 31. Type genus: Dryophytes Fitzinger, 1843. Synonymy by implication of synonymy of Dryophytes with Hyla by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 373.

Dendropsophi Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 31. Type genus: Dendropsophus Fitzinger, 1843. Synonymy by implication of Kellogg, 1932, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 160: 148.

Pseudae Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 33. Type genus: Pseudis Wagler, 1830. Synonymy by Darst and Cannatella, 2004, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 31: 470.

Calamitae Leunis, 1844, Synops. Drei Naturr., Zool., Ed. 1: 145; Gravenhorst, 1845, Das Thierreich: 43.

PseudesLeunis, 1844, Synops. Drei Naturr., Zool., Ed. 1: 146; Cope, 1866, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 89.

HylainaBonaparte, 1845, Specchio Gen. Sist. Erpetol. Anfibiol. Ittiolog.: 6.

HylidaeBonaparte, 1850, Conspect. Syst. Herpetol. Amph.: 1 p.

HyloideaStannius, 1856, Handb. Zootomie Wiebelthiere, 2: 5; Wied-Neuwied, 1865, Nova Acta Phys. Med. Acad. Caesar Leopold Carol., Halle, 32: 116.

HyloidesBruch, 1862, Würzb. Naturwiss. Z., 3: 221.

Acridina Mivart, 1869, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1869: 292. Type genus: Acris Duméril and Bibron, 1841. Synonymy by implication of Duellman, 1970, Monogr. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas: 18.

Cophomantina Hoffmann, 1878, in Bronn (ed.), Die Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs, 6(2): 614. Type genus: Cophomantis Peters, 1870. Synonymy by implication of synonymy of Cophomantis with Hyla by Peters, 1873 "1872", Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 772; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 337.

HylidaBayer, 1885 "1884", Abh. K. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., Prague, 12: 18.

HylidiAcloque, 1900, Fauna de France, 1: 489.

HylinaeGadow, 1901, Amphibia and Reptiles: 139.

Lophiohylinae Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 27: 64. Type genus: Lophyohyla Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926. Synonymy by implication of generic synonymy by Bokermann, 1966, An. Acad. Brasil. Cienc., 38: 355-344; and Goin, 1961, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 36: 7.

Triprioninae Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 27: 64. Type genus: Triprion Cope, 1866. Synonymy by implication of Duellman, 1970, Monogr. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas: 18.

PseudinaeNoble, 1931, Biol. Amph.: 496; Duellman, 2001, Hylid Frogs Middle Am., Ed. 2: 770.

PseudidaeSavage and Carvalho, 1953, Zoologica, New York, 38: 198.

AcridinaeKuhn, 1965, Die Amphib.: 96.

Trachycephalinae Lutz, 1969, Acta Zool. Lilloana, 24: 275. Type genus: Trachycephalus Tschudi, 1838. Synonymy by implication of Duellman, 1970, Monogr. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas: 18.

CophomantiniFaivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 75.

DendropsophiniFaivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 90.

HyliniFaivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 98.

LophiohyliniFaivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 107.

Incertae Sedis

Hyla fusca Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 34. Type(s): Specimens in "Museo Academico Upsaliensi, & Viennae in Turriana thesauro"; not known to still exist. Type locality: not stated. * Calamita fuscusSchneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 174. * Hyla fuscaDaudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 40. Incorrectly regarded as new by Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 20, and who considered MNHNP 4815 the holotype and regarded the type locality as "Brésil". * Calamita fuscusMerrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 170. Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 170, and Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 575, considered that the various authors were basing their concepts on different frogs. * Hyla fuscaBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 374. ENGLISH NAME: Brown Treefrog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 55). DISTRIBUTION: Unknown. COMMENT: Name not associated with a biological population of frogs (W.E. Duellman in Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 135). * Bombinator fuscusSchlegel, 1826, Bull. Sci. Nat. Geol., Paris, Ser. 2, 9: 239.

Hyla aurantiaca Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 35. Type(s): By indication including the frog illustrated by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: pl. 71, fig. 3. Type locality: "Surinami". * Hyla aurantiaca aurantiacaCochran, 1953, Herpetologica, 8: 112; by implication.

Calamita melanorabdotus Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 173. Type(s): Frog illustrated in unpublished picture in the Royal Berlin Library donated by Prince Maurice of Nassau, according to original publication. Type locality: "Brasilia". * Rana MelanorabdataShaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 137. Incorrect subsequent spelling. * Hyla melanorabdotaDaudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 43; Daudin, 1803 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Rept., 8: 8; Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 316. ENGLISH NAME(S): Black-striped Frog (Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 137). Schneider's Treefrog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 56). COMMENT: Name not assignable to any known species (W. E. Duellman IN Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 141). See comments by Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 137. Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 172, regarded this as a junior synonym of Hyla lactea Laurenti, 1768. Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 111, regarded this as a nomen dubium.

Calamita quadrilineatus Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 169. Type(s): "Museo Barbyensi", presumably now lost. Type locality: Unknown. * Hyla quadrilineataDaudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 42. * Rana quadrilineataShaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 127. ENGLISH NAME(S): Four-lined Frog (Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 127). Four-lined Treefrog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 57). DISTRIBUTION: Unknown. COMMENT: Similar to Hyla leucophyllata according to the original publication. This name has not been assigned to any known population (W.E. Duellman IN Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 149). Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 111, regarded this as a nomen dubium.

Hyla surinamensis Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 44. Type(s): Based on frog figured in Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 2: pl. 70, fig. 4. Type locality: "Surinam." * Calamita surinamensisMerrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 169. ENGLISH NAME(S): Daudin's Surinam Treefrog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 58). DISTRIBUTION: ? Surinam. COMMENT: Regarded as a nomen dubium by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 316, and Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 105.

Hyla stercoracea Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 32. Type(s): Including animal figured on pl. 10, fig. 2 of the original publication; presumably originally in ZSM; Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 362, suggested that the type was lost and that the name did not apply to Hylodes nasus, but likely some species of Hyla (sensu lato). Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 169, suggested that the lost type was probably ZSM 2369/0. Type locality: "Habitat in sylvis fluminis Teffé", Brazil. Synonymy with Hylodes nasus by Peters, 1872, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 226.

Litoria americana Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 506. Holotype: MNHNP 756, according to Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 17. Type locality: "Nouvelle-Orléans" (= New Orleans), Orleans Parish, Louisiana, USA. * Hyla americanaNieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 316. ENGLISH NAME(S): American Treefrog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 54). DISTRIBUTION: Unknown although presumably associated with one of the species found in southern Louisiana, USA. COMMENT: This name was considered a nomen dubium as early as Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 337, and has never been associated with a population of anurans (W. E. Duellman IN Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 125).

Hyla molitor Schmidt, 1857, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 24: 11. Syntypes: Including NHMW 16494 (according to Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 77, and Häupl and Tiedemann, 1978, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 2: 19), KM 1010/1341 (2 specimens); female of KM syntypes designated lectotype by Savage and Heyer, 1969, Rev. Biol. Tropical, 16: 1-127. Type locality: "Chiriquiflusse unweit Bocca del toro", Panama; in error, according to Duellman, 1970, Monogr. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas: 650. * Hyla molitor var. marmorata Schmidt, 1857, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 24: 12. Holotype: KM 1010/1342, according to Savage, 1970, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 38: 273-288. Type locality: "Chiriqui-Flusse unweit Bocca del toro", Panama. Preoccupied by Hyla marmorata Laurenti, 1768. Synonymy by Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: ix, 77. ENGLISH NAME(S): Schmidt's Bolivian Treefrog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 56). DISTRIBUTION: ? Bolivia (see comment). GEOGRAPHIC KEY WORDS: Bolivia, Unknown, ?Panama. COMMENT: Name not assigned to any known species; see Duellman, 1970, Monogr. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas: 650-651, who thought the name might apply to a Bolivian species.

Acrodytes daudinii Parker, 1868, Monogr. Struct. Devel. Shoulder-girdle Stern. Vert.: 75. Type(s): "Hyrtlean Collection", presumably now in the BMNH. Type locality: "Brazil".

Dendrhyla sinensis David, 1873 "1872", J. N. China Branch R. Asiat. Soc., N.S., 7: 227. Type(s): Not stated. Type locality: "Setchuan occidental", China. Nomen nudum. Presumably a synonym of a member of the Hyla japonica group (DRF).

Hyla auraria Peters, 1873, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1873: 615. Holotype: ZSM 1175/0, according to Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 166, not lost as reported by Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 35. Type locality: "angeblich aus Südamerica". ENGLISH NAME(S): Peter's Secret Treefrog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 54). COMMENT: This name has not been associated with a population of anurans (W.E. Duellman IN Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 127). Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 111, regarded this as a nomen dubium, although on page 203 they described the type in some detail. Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 166, noted that the holotype is in relatively good shape.

English Names

Harlequin Frogs (Pseudinae [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 97).

Distribution

North and South America; West Indies; temperate Eurasia, including extreme northern Africa and the Japanese Archipelago.

Comment

Duellman, 2001, Hylid Frogs Middle Am., Ed. 2: 770, considered Hylinae a paraphyletic grade with respect to Pseudinae. Hedges, 1986, Syst. Zool., 35: 1–21, studied the phylogenetic relationships of Holarctic hylids via phenetic analysis of allozymes. Gaudin, 1974, J. Herpetol., 8: 141–152, reported on osteological variation among holarctic tree frogs. Salducci, Marty, Chappaz, and Gilles, 2002, C. R. Hebd. Séances Acad. Sci., Paris, 325: 141–153, suggested that Hylinae is paraphyletic with respect to Pelodryadinae, Phyllomedusinae, Hemiphractinae, and Centrolenidae. Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 288–357, provided keys and accounts for the species of Costa Rica. The former Pseudinae was placed either in the Leptodactylidae or as a subfamily of Hylidae until Savage and Carvalho considered Pseudidae to be a distinct family derived from Leptodactylidae. Burger, 1954, Herpetologica, 10: 194-196, suggested that they were derived from Hylidae. A checklist of the species and subspecies was provided by Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 197–201. Duellman, 2001, Hylid Frogs Middle Am., Ed. 2: 770, placed Pseudinae as derived from a deeply paraphyletic Hylinae. Ford and Cannatella, 1993, Herpetol. Monogr., 7: 94–117, considered Hylidae, Pseudidae and Centrolenidae to be in a polytomy (fide errata; they inadvertantly figured Centrolenidae as the sister taxon of Hylidae plus Pseudidae). Darst and Cannatella, 2004, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 31: 462–475, presented evidence that Pseudinae is deeply imbedded with Hylinae and placed Pseudinae in synonymy. Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294, completely revised Hylinae and recognized four tribes of unequal phylogenetic value: 1) Cophomantini (Asplastodiscus, Bokermannohyla, Hyloscirtus, Hypsiboas, and Myersiohyla); 2) Dendropsophini (Dendropsophus, Lysapsus, Pseudis, Scarthyla, Scinax, Sphaenorhynchus, and Xenohyla); 3) Hylini (Acris, Anotheca, Bromeliohyla, Charadrohyla, Duellmanohyla, Ecnomiohyla, Exerodonta, Hyla, Isthmohyla, Megastomatohyla, Plectrohyla, Pseudacris, Ptychohyla, Smilisca, Tlalocohyla, Triprion), 4) Lophiohylini (Aparasphenodon, Argenteohyla, Corythomantis, Nyctimantis, Osteocephalus, Osteopilus, Phyllodytes, Tepuihyla, and Trachycephalus). Phylogenetically, the four tribes are arranged: Cophomantini + (Dendrophsophini + (Hylini + Lophiophylini)). Powell, Collins, and Hooper, 2011, Key Herpetofauna U.S. & Canada, 2nd Ed.: 9–11, provided an identification key to the genera and species of the United States and Canada. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 204–272, provided keys to the genera and species as well as breif summaries of life history information along with maps and photographs of the species.

Contained taxa (678 sp.):

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