Pseudacris crucifer (Wied-Neuwied, 1838)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hylidae > Subfamily: Acridinae > Genus: Pseudacris > Species: Pseudacris crucifer

Hyla crucifer Wied-Neuwied, 1838, Reise Innere N. Am. 1832–1834, 1 (Heft 1–6): 275. Holotype: Originally in Wied collection; location now unknown, possibly in AMNH. Type locality: "Cantonment Leavenworth" (= Fort Leavenworth), Leavenworth County, Kansas, USA (never recollected at this locality according to Rundquist, 1977, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 80: 155-158). Not clear from original description that animal actually came specifically from Leavenworth rather than anywhere between there and St. Louis, Missouri (DRF).

Hylodes pickeringii Holbrook, 1839 "1836", N. Am. Herpetol., Vers. 2, 1: 131. Types: Frog figured on pl. 27 of the original publication; not known to still exist. Type locality: "found in Massachusetts, and is particularly abundant . . . in the vicinity of Salem . . . [also] in New York . . . [and] in the neighbourhood of Philadelphia", USA. Restricted to "Danvers, Essex County, Massachusetts", USA, by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 70, this restriction regarded as invalid by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 359, for reason of not being based on disclosed evidence. See discussion of publication by Adler, 1976, Holbrook’s N. Am. Herpetol.: xxxvii, and comment associated with Salamandra salmonea. Synonymy by Cope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 353; by Stejneger and Barbour, 1917, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept.: 32.

Hylodes pickeringiiStorer, 1839, Rep. Ichthyol. Herpetol. Massachusetts: 240.

Hyla pickeringiiHolbrook, 1840, N. Am. Herpetol., 4: 135; Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 189.

Acris pickeringiiJan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 53; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 71.

Hyliola pickeringiiMocquard, 1899, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. 4, 1: 339.

Hyla cruciferaMyers, 1927 "1926", Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci., 36: 338; Myers, 1929, Copeia, 170: 22–23.

Hyla crucifera cruciferaHarper, 1939, Not. Nat., Philadelphia, 27: 1.

Hyla crucifera bartramiana Harper, 1939, Not. Nat., Philadelphia, 27: 1. Holotype: ANSP 21526, by original designation. Type locality: "4 miles west of Folkston, Charlton County, G[eorgi]a.", USA. Distinctiveness from Pseudacris crucifer crucifer rejected by Moriarty and Cannatella, 2004, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 30: 417.

Parapseudacris cruciferHardy and Burrows, 1986, Bull. Maryland Herpetol. Soc., 22: 80.

Pseudacris cruciferHedges, 1986, Syst. Zool., 35: 11; Silva, 1997, J. Herpetol., 31: 612.

Pseudacris crucifer bartramianaStevenson and Crowe, 1992, Herpetol. Rev., 23: 86; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 12.

Pseudacris crucifer cruciferStevenson and Crowe, 1992, Herpetol. Rev., 23: 86, by implication.

Hyla cruciferCocroft, 1994, Herpetologica, 50: 420–437.

Pseudacris (Limnaoedus) cruciferFouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 359. 

English Names

Piping Tree Toad (Hylodes pickeringi [no longer recognized]: Verrill, 1863, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 9: 198).

Pickering's Hylodes (Hylodes pickeringi [no longer recognized]: Storer, 1839, Rep. Ichthyol. Herpetol. Massachusetts: 240; Storer, 1840, Boston J. Nat. Hist., 3: 47).

Pickering's Tree Toad (Hyla pickeringi [no longer recognized]: Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 189; Davis and Rice, 1883, Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1: 27; Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 105).

Pickering's Tree Frog (Hyla pickeringi [no longer recognized]: Hay, 1892, Annu. Rep. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Indiana for 1891: 466; Rhoads, 1895, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 47: 396).

Spring Peeper (Hyla pickeringi [no longer recognized]: Dickerson, 1906, The Frog Book: 138).

Peeper (Hyla pickeringi [no longer recognized]: Brimley, 1907, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 23: 158).

Spring Peeper (Pseudacris crucifer: Wright and Wright, 1933, Handb. Frogs Toads U.S. Canada: x; Stejneger and Barbour, 1933, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 3: 34; Smith, 1934, Am. Midl. Nat., 15: 470; Carr, 1940, Univ. Florida Biol. Sci. Ser., 3: 59; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 70; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 176; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 319; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 11; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 62; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 12; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 12; Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2008, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 37: 9; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 7; Frost, McDiarmid, Mendelson, and Green, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 19; Frost, Lemmon, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 17).

Southern Spring Peeper (Pseudacris crucifer bartramiana [no longer recognized]: Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 70; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 176; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 320; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 11; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 62; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 12; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 12).

Northern Spring Peeper (Pseudacris crucifer crucifer [no longer recognized]: Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 70; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 176; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 320; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 11; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 63; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 12; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 12).

Pickering's Hyla (Hyla pickeringi [no longer recognized]: Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 24).

Distribution

Eastern North America from East Texas (USA) to southeastern Manitoba (Canada) then east, exluding peninsular Florida; introduced at Marianao and Canasí, Cuba.

Comment

In the Pseudacris crucifer group of Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 106. Austin, Lougheed, Neidrauer, Chek, and Boag, 2002, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 25: 316–329, reported on molecular phylogeography within the species, noting that no subspecies can be recognized although secondary post-Pleistocene contact zones are evident between former refugia. Moriarty and Cannatella, 2004, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 30: 409–420, discussed the lack of distinguishable subspecies. Busack, 1977, Herpetol. Rev., 8: 13, provided a record for South Dakota. Butterfield, Lannoo, and Nanjappa, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 472–474, and Dodd, 2013, Frogs U.S. and Canada, 1: 331–348, provided accounts that summarized the range and relevant literature. Elliot, Gerhardt, and Davidson, 2009, Frogs and Toads of N. Am.: 76–79, provided an account, photos, and advertisement call. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 205–206, provided an account of larval morphology and biology.  

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