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Eleutherodactylus Duméril and Bibron, 1841

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Eleutherodactylidae > Subfamily: Eleutherodactylinae > Genus: Eleutherodactylus
186 species

Eleutherodactylus Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 620. Type species: Hylodes martinicensis Tschudi, 1838, by monotypy. Placed on Official List of Generic Names in Zoology by Opinion 1104, Anonymous, 1978, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 34: 223.

Euhyas Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 31. Type species: Hylodes ricordii Duméril and Bibron, 1841, by original designation. Synonymized by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 198, with Hylodes sensu lato; later placed in Eleutherodactylus by Barbour, 1910, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 23: 100. Treated as a subgenus of Eleutherodactylus by Hedges, 1989, in Woods (ed.), Biogeograph. W. Indies: 319. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, and Green, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 197, recognized Euhyas as a genus. Synonymy with Eleutherodactylus by Heinicke, Duellman, and Hedges, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 10092–10097.

Epirhexis Cope, 1866, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 96. Type species: Batrachyla longipes Baird, 1859, by original designation. Senior synonym of Syrrhophus according to Lynch, 1967, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 24: 313–315, who requested suppression of this name. Suppressed for purposes of Priority but not Homonymy by Opinion 1024, Anonymous, 1974, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 31: 130–132. Synonymy (with Hylodes sensu lato) by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 199. Synonymy with Eleutherodactylus by Barbour, 1923, Proc. New England Zool. Club, 8: 81–82.

Syrrhophus Cope, 1878, Am. Nat., 12: 253. Type species: Syrrhophus marnocki Cope, 1878, by monotypy. Synonymy with Eleutherodactylus by Myers, 1962, Copeia, 1962: 198; this synonymy ignored by subsequent workers, until synonymy and treatment as a subgenus of Eleutherodactylus by Hedges, 1989, in Woods (ed.), Biogeograph. W. Indies: 318, and Heinicke, Duellman, and Hedges, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 10092–10097. Placed on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology by Opinion 1024, Anonymous, 1974, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 31: 130–132.

Malachylodes Cope, 1879, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 18: 264. Type species: Malachylodes guttilatus Cope, 1879, by monotypy. Synonymy with Syrrhophus by Boulenger, 1888, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1888: 206.

SyrrhopusBoulenger, 1888, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1888: 206. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Syrrhophus Cope, 1878.

SyrrhaphusGünther, 1900, Biol. Centr. Amer., Rept. Batr., Part 155: 215. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Syrrhophus Cope, 1878.

Tomodactylus Günther, 1900, Biol. Centr. Amer., Rept. Batr., Part 155: 219. Type species: Tomodactylus amulae Günther, 1900, by monotypy. Synonymy with Syrrhophus by Hedges, 1989, in Woods (ed.), Biogeograph. W. Indies: 318.

Sminthillus Barbour and Noble, 1920, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 63: 402. Type species: Phyllobates limbatus Cope, 1862, by original designation. Synonymy with Eleutherodactylus recommended by Bogart, 1981, R. Ontario Mus. Life Sci. Contrib., 129: 19. Synonymy with Euhyas by Hedges, 1989, in Woods (ed.), Biogeograph. W. Indies: 318.

Ladailadne Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 23. Type species: Eleutherodactylus jasperi Drewry and Jones, 1976, by original designation. Synonymy with Eleutherodactylus by Hedges, 1989, in Woods (ed.), Biogeograph. W. Indies: 327.

Pelorius Hedges, 1989, in Woods (ed.), Biogeograph. W. Indies: 329. Type species: Leptodactylus inoptatus Barbour, 1914, by original designation. Coined as a subgenus of Eleutherodactylus.

PeloriusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, and Green, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 197. Recognition as a genus.

Schwartzius Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 87. Type species: Eleutherodactylus counouspeus Schwartz, 1964, by original designation. Coined as a subgenus of Eleutherodactylus.

Incertae Sedis

Rana maculata Daudin In Sonnini de Manoncourt and Latreille, 1801 "An. X", Hist. Nat. Rept., 2: 161. Type(s): MNHNP, and presumably frog figured in Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 57, pl. 17, fig. 2. Type locality: "'île de Portoricco"; given as " Portorico . . . dans les montagnes de l'ile" by Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 57. A nomen oblitum under Art. 23.9 (International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 1999; see Rana maculata Brocchi (Ranidae).

Cystignathus humilis Jiménez de la Espada, 1875, Vert. Viaje Pacif. Verif. 1862–1865: Pl. 1, fig. 2. Holotype: MNCN specimen figured on plate 1, fig. 2. Type locality: Not stated.

English Names

Robber Frogs (Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 176; Liner, 1994, Herpetol. Circ., 23: 18; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 72; Lee, 2000, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Maya World: 62; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 7).

Rainfrogs (Lee, 2000, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Maya World: 62; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 8; Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2008, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 37: 5; Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 12; Frost, McDiarmid, Mendelson, and Green, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 14).

Streamfrogs (Lee, 2000, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Maya World: 62).

Chirping Frogs (Syrrhophus: Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept., 1(Amph.): 283). 

West Indian Frogs (Euhyas: Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 13).

Greater Antilles Rainfrogs (Euhyas: Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept., 1(Amph.): 281). 

Distribution

Southern Texas and western Mexico south to Belize and Guatemala; Antilles from the Bahamas and Cuba east and south to the Leeward Islands.

Comment

Synonymies for the West Indian species (including Euhyas and Pelorius of this catalog) are available in Schwartz and Thomas, 1975, Spec. Publ. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist., 1: 14–41, and Schwartz, Thomas, and Ober, 1978, Spec. Publ. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist., 5: 3–8. Lesser Antillean species were reviewed by Schwartz, 1967, Stud. Fauna Curaçao and other Caribb. Is., 24: 1–62. Schwartz and Fowler, 1973, Stud. Fauna Curaçao and other Caribb. Is., 43: 51–142, reviewed the species of Jamaica. Jamaican species groups were redefined by Crombie, 1977, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 90: 194–204. Schwartz, 1969, Stud. Fauna Curaçao and other Caribb. Is., 30: 99–115, discussed the Eleutherodactylus auriculatus group. Schwartz, 1965, Herpetologica, 21: 27–31, discussed the phylogenetic relationships of Cuban members of the Eleutherodactylus auriculatus group. Shreve and Williams, 1963, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 129: 315–342, defined species groups for the Hispaniolan forms. Schwartz, 1973, J. Herpetol., 7: 249–273, discussed the distribution and biogeography of the Hispaniolan South Island species. Crother, 1999, in Crother (ed.), Caribb. Amph. Rept.: 273–279, reviewed the history of systematics and Antillean species. Schwartz, 1976, Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol. Sci., 21: 1–46, reviewed, defined, and discussed some of the phylogenetic relationships within the Eleutherodactylus ricordii group. Bogart, 1981, R. Ontario Mus. Life Sci. Contrib., 129: 1–22, compared the chromosomes of some species from Cuba and Puerto Rico. Joglar, 1983, Caribb. J. Sci., 19: 33–40, compared phenetically the species of Puerto Rico. Lynch, 1968, Copeia, 1968: 875–876, defined the Eleutherodactylus guentheri, Eleutherodactylus binotatus, Eleutherodactylus lacteus, and the Eleutherodactylus parvus groups. Lynch, 1980, Am. Mus. Novit., 2696: 1–24, provided a taxonomic and distributional synopsis of the Amazonian species. Lynch, 1981, Misc. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 72: 1–46, reviewed the species of the Andes of northern Ecuador and adjacent Colombia. Lynch and Duellman, 1980, Misc. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 69: 1–86, reviewed the species of the Amazonian slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes. Lynch, 1979, Misc. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 66: 1–62, reviewed the species of the Andes of southern Ecuador. Rivero and Solano, 1979 "1977", Mem. Soc. Cienc. Nat. La Salle, 37: 249–263, discussed the evolution of the species of the Andes of Venezuela. Savage and DeWeese, 1981 "1980", Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 93: 928–942, discussed the species groups (including what is now Craugastor) of Central American species, as did Ford and Savage, 1984, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 110: 1–9, who also discussed Lynch's Eleutherodactylus unistrigatus group, from which they removed the Eleutherodactylus omiltemanus group (now in Craugastor). Lynch, 1984, Herpetologica, 40: 234–237, discussed the Eleutherodactylus pyrrhomerus assembly of the Eleutherodactylus unstrigatus group. Lynch, 1975, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 38: 1–46, reviewed the broad-headed Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus biporcatus group, Eleutherodactylus sulcatus group, and former Amblyphrynus). Savage and Myers, 2002, Am. Mus. Novit., 3357: 1–21, also reviewed the Eleutherodactylus biporcatus group. Lynch, 1981, Caldasia, 13: 318, provided a cladogram of the species in the Eleutherodactylus sulcatus group (including former Amblyphrynus). Lynch, 1983, in Rhodin and Miyata (eds.), Adv. Herpetol. Evol. Biol.: 52–57, discussed the Eleutherodactylus devillei assembly of the Eleutherodactylus unistrigatus group, and supplied a cladogram of the species. Unless otherwise noted the species group assignments in the species accounts follow Lynch, 1976, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 61: 1–24, provided a system of species groups, and subsequently arrangement of assemblies within these were supplied by Lynch, 1981, Misc. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 72: 37–38. Heyer, 1984, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 402: 42, reviewed the species related to Eleutherodactylus guentheri. Savage, 1987, Fieldiana, Zool., N.S., 33: 1–57, provided a discussion of jaw musculature and karyology in the taxonomy of Eleutherodactylus. Additionally, Savage suggested that Eleutherodactylus is paraphyletic with respect to Euparkerella, Holoaden, and Ischnocnema (as well as other taxa subsequently recognized). Lynch, 1989, Milwaukee Public Mus. Contrib. Biol. Geol., 79: 1–25, reviewed the former Eleutherodactylus discoidalis group and showed it to be nonmonophyletic and separated into three species groups: (1) the Eleutherodactylus dolops group; (2) the Eleutherodactylus nigrovittatus group, and (3) the discoidalis group. Joglar, 1989, in Woods (ed.), Biogeograph. W. Indies: 371–408, proposed a morphological analysis of the phylogeny of West Indian Eleutherodactylus, defined and diagnosed the species groups of Eleutherodactylus in the West Indies, and placed the members of the former Eleutherodactylus gossei and Eleutherodactylus emiliae groups into the Eleutherodactylus ricordii group. Estrada, Rodriguez, and Moreno, 1986, Poeyana, 329: 1–14, discussed the Eleutherodactylus symingtoni group in Cuba. Hedges, 1989, in Woods (ed.), Biogeograph. W. Indies: 305–370, reported on a molecular analysis of West Indian Eleutherodactylus and synonymized Ladailadne, Sminthillus (with what is now Euhyas), Syrrhophus, and Tomodactylus and recognized five subgenera within Eleutherodactylus (noted in the species accounts): (1) Craugastor; (2) Eleutherodactylus; (3) Pelorius; (4) Syrrhophus; (5) Euhyas. Hedges, 1989, in Woods (ed.), Biogeograph. W. Indies: 305–370, and Hedges, 1990 "1989", Caribb. J. Sci., 25: 123–147, provided a taxonomy of species groups to fit within his system of subgenera. See comment under Ischnocnema. Lynch, 1992, J. Herpetol., 26: 53–59, redefined the Eleutherodactylus rubicundus assembly and defined the Eleutherodactylus loustes group. Lynch, 1991, J. Herpetol., 25: 344–352, discussed the phenetically aggregated Eleutherodactylus leptolophus group. Wiens and Coloma, 1992, J. Herpetol., 26: 196–207, discussed the phylogenetics of the Eleutherodactylus myersi assembly. Lynch, 1992, J. Herpetol., 26: 53–59, discussed the relationships of the Eletherodactylus loustes group and commented on the former Eleutherodactylus rubicundus assembly. Flores, 1994 "1993", Herpetologica, 49: 427–434, discussed the content and relationships within the Eleutherodactylus surdus assembly. Lynch, 1994, Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. Exact. Fis. Nat., 19: 187–193, further distinguished between the Eleutherodactylus fitzingeri group (now in Craugastor) and the Eleutherodactylus conspicillatus group and discussed the members of the Eleutherodactylus conspicillatus group in Colombia. Lynch, Ruiz-Carranza, and Ardila-Robayo, 1994, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 170: 1–42, recognized the Eleutherodactylus cerasinus group (now in Craugastor) and Eleutherodactylus devillei group, and discussed errors by Cochran and Goin, 1970, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 288, regarding assignment of the name Eleutherodactylus latidiscus. Kaiser, Green, and Schmid, 1994, Canad. J. Zool., 72: 2217–2237, reported on the phylogenetics of some West Indian species. Lynch and Duellman, 1997, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 23: 1–236, provided accounts for the species found in western Ecuador, and provided synonyms and subgeneric and species group assignments for all of the species. Lynch, 1997, Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. Exact. Fis. Nat., 21: 353–372, reviewed the Eleutherodactylus sulcatus group and provided a cladogram. Duellman and Pramuk, 1999, Sci. Pap. Nat. Hist. Mus. Univ. Kansas, 13: 1–78, reviewed the species of the Andes of northern Peru and discussed the Eleutherodactylus conspicillatus group, Eleutherodactylus nigrovittatus group, Eleutherodactylus orestes group, and the Eleutherodactylus unistrigatus group. Key to Hispaniolan species (including Pelorius and Euhyas) available in Henderson and Schwartz, 1984, Spec. Publ. Biol. Geol. Milwaukee Publ. Mus., 4: 7–11, and Henderson, Schwartz, and Inchaustegui, 1984, Ser. Monogr. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Santo Domingo: 23. On the basis of four osteological characters Lynch, 2001, Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. Exact. Fis. Nat., 25: 127–136, suggested that Craugastor (along with the Eleutherodactylus conspicillatus, Eleutherodactylus myersi, and Eleutherodactylus sulcatus series) is pervasively plesiomorphic (for these four characters) for Eleutherodactylus, that Euhyas and Pelorius may be polyphyletic or paraphyletic, with Syrrhophus possibly derived from Euhyas, among other possibilities. Lynch, 2000 "1999", Caldasia, 21: 184–202, provided a key to the species from Chocoan Colombia. Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 226–274, provided a key and accounts for species of Costa Rica and detailed a system of species groups. Lynch, 2003, Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. Exact. Fis. Nat., 27: 287–289, provided a revised cladogram of the Eleutherodactylus nigrovittatus group. Lynch, 2003, Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. Exact. Fis. Nat., 27: 449–460, discussed and rejected the Eleutherodactylus tubernasus group. Guayasamin, 2004, Herpetol. Monogr., 18: 142–174, discussed the comparative osteology of the Eleutherodactylus orcesi group and its monophyly. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, and Green, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 199, noted a character that would ally the Eleutherodactylus diastema group with Adelophryne and Phyzelaphryne, and otherwise discussed the likely paraphyly of this taxon, with respect to Adelophryne, Brachycephalus, Euparkeralla, and Ischnocnema. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, and Green, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 200, also discussed the Eleutherodactylus fraudator group and excluded it from Craugastor. Padial, Gonzales-Álvarez, and De la Riva, 2005, Herpetologica, 61: 318–325, discussed characters that unite the Eleutherodactylus discoidalis group with Ischnocnema and provided a key to the Eleutherodactylus discoidalis group. Arroyo, Sánchez, Ramírez-Pinilla, Suárez, and Miranda-Esquivel, 2005, Zootaxa, 1018: 1–14, reported on a phenetic comparison of 7 cloudforest species in Santander, Colombia. Lynch, 1996, in Powell and Henderson (eds.), Contr. W. Indian Herpetol.: 141–155, discussed relationships within the subgenus Pelorius (containing the Eleutherodactylus inoptatus group and the Eleutherodactylus ruthae group), noting that there is no evidence for the monophyly of this nominal taxon; he also discussed broader subgeneric taxonomy within Eleutherodactylus. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, and Green, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 197–201, discussed the status of this taxon with respect to "Eleutherodactylus" and recognized Syrrhophus as a genus. Lynch, 1970, Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist., 20: 1–45, revised Syrrhophus; now Eleutherodactylus. Dixon, 1957, Texas J. Sci., 9: 379–409, revised the species of former Tomodactylus, now part of Eleutherodactylus. Rodríguez, Vences, Nevado, Machordom, and Verheyen, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 54: 179–186, reported on the molecular phylogenetics of the Eleutherodactylus auriculatus group. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543–583, in their study of Genbank sequences, confirmed the monophyly of the genus and provided a tree of their molecular exemplars, confirming that the subgenera Schwartzius, Eleutherodactylus, and Syrrhophus are monophyletic, with Euhyas being polyphyletic, a very large clade (bearing the name Euhyas) being the sister taxon of Syrrhophus and a smaller group of nominal Euhyas composed of their exemplars Eleutherodactylus richmondi and Eleutherodactylus unicolor forming the sister taxon of the subgenus Eleutherodactylus. Powell, Collins, and Hooper, 2011, Key Herpetofauna U.S. & Canada, 2nd Ed.: 43–44, provided a key to the species that enter or where introduced into the USA. Rodríguez, Vences, and García, 2011, Salamandra, 47: 222–226, reported on the molecular phylogenetics of the Eleutherodactylus planirostris series. Rodríguez, Alonso, Rodríguez, and Vences, 2012, Salamandra, 48: 71–91, reported on the molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Eleutherodactylus limbatus group. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 183–191, provided a key to the species of Eleutherodactylus in Central America and provided maps and photographs of the species.

Contained taxa (186 sp.):

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