Thoropa miliaris (Spix, 1824)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Cycloramphidae > Genus: Thoropa > Species: Thoropa miliaris

Rana miliaris Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 30. Type(s): Not specifically designated, but including animal figured on pl. 6, fig. 1 of the original publication; holotype was ZSM 2493/0, now lost according to Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 359, and Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 176. MNRJ 24979 designated neotype by Feio, Napoli, and Caramaschi, 2006, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 64> 54. Type locality: "fluminis Amazonum" = Amazon River [in error]; Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 89, noted that Spix's specimens probably came from Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a view concurred with by Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 360. Neotype from "BRASIL: RIO DE JANEIRO: Rio de Janeiro (22°54′ S, 43°12′ W, nível do mar), Praia Vermelha, Bairro da Urca, afloramentos rochosos ao final da Pista Cláudio Coutinho".

Cystignathus missiessii Eydoux and Souleyet, 1842, Voy. Autour Monde 1836–1837 La Bonite, 1: 148. Holotype: Not stated; MNHNP 761 according to Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 28. Type locality: "la cascade de Tijouka [= Tijuca], aux environs de Rio-Janeiro", Brazil; Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 28, reported that the data associated with the type were unknown. Tentative synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 331; Boulenger, 1891, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 6, 8: 453-457.

Eupsophus fuliginosus Fitzinger, 1861 "1860", Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 42: 414. Holotype: NHMW 15847, according to Häupl and Tiedemann, 1978, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 2: 16, and Häupl, Tiedemann, and Grillitsch, 1994, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 9: 21. Type locality: "Brasilien"; rendered as "Umgebung von Rio Janeiro", Brazil, by Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 25. Data associated with specimen are "Rio de Janeiro, Brasilien", according to Häupl and Tiedemann, 1978, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 2: 16, and Häupl, Tiedemann, and Grillitsch, 1994, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 9: 22. Nomen nudum. Synonymy by Cochran, 1955 "1954", Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 206: 297.

Cystignathus discolor Reinhardt and Lütken, 1862 "1861", Vidensk. Medd. Dansk Naturhist. Foren., Ser. 2, 3: 169. Syntypes: ZMUC (4 specimens), by original designation. Type locality: "Provindsen Minas Geraes i Naerheden af Byen Juiz de Fora", Minas Gerais, Brazil. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1891, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 6, 8: 453-457; Heyer, 1974, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 253: 42.

Thoropa missiessiiCope, 1865, Nat. Hist. Rev., N.S., 5: 110.

Cystignathus (Eupsophus) fuliginosusSteindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 25.

Ololygon miliarisPeters, 1872, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 206.

Leptodactylus discolorBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 237.

Thoropa miliarisBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 31; Lutz, 1947, Copeia, 1947: 246; Bokermann, 1965, An. Acad. Brasil. Cienc., 37: 530. Lynch, 1972, Bull. S. California Acad. Sci., 71: 5.

Borborocoetes miliarisBoulenger, 1891, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 6, 8: 454.

Hylodes miliarisWandolleck, 1907, Abh. Ber. Zool. Anthropol. Ethnograph. Mus. Dresden, 11: 5.

Leptodactylus discolorBaumann, 1912, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 33: 162.

Eleutherodactylus miliarisNoble, 1917, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 37: 793.

Hylodes ? Brieni De Witte, 1930, in Massart (ed.), Miss. Biol. Belge Brésil, 2: 223. Holotype: IRSNB 1.024 according to Lang, 1990, Doc. Trav., Inst. R. Sci. Nat. Belg., 59: 10. Type locality: "Itaeté (Bahia)", Brazil. Synonymy by Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 66.

Eupsophus miliarisMiranda-Ribeiro, 1937, O Campo, 8: 67; Cochran, 1955 "1954", Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 206: 293.

English Names

Military River Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 85).

Rock River Frog (Feio, Juncá, and Caramaschi, 2000, Herpetol. Rev., 31: 252).

Distribution

Atlantic Forest in the states of Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, and the interior of São Paulo, Brazil.

Comment

See Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 360, for synonymy. See account by Cochran, 1955 "1954", Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 206: 293-298. Feio, Juncá, and Caramaschi, 2000, Herpetol. Rev., 31: 252, reported on the range. Izecksohn and Carvalho-e-Silva, 2001, Anf. Municipio Rio de Janeiro: 89, provided a brief account and photo. Canelas and Bertoluci, 2007, Iheringia, Zool., 97: 21-26, provided a record for the Serra do Caraça, southern end of the Serra do Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil. See account by Feio, Napoli, and Caramaschi, 2006, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 64> 41-60. Fitzpatrick, Brasileiro, Haddad, and Zamudio, 2009, Mol. Ecol., 18: 2877-2896, suggested on the basis of molecular evidence that this name covers at least tw0 species. Cruz, Feio, and Caramaschi, 2009, Anf. Ibitipoca: 76-77, provided photographs and a brief account for Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Barth, 1956, Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 43: 489–497, reported on larval morphology. 

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