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Pristimantis Jiménez de la Espada, 1870

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Craugastoridae > Subfamily: Ceuthomantinae > Genus: Pristimantis
473 species

Pristimantis Jiménez de la Espada, 1870, J. Sci. Math. Phys. Nat., Lisboa, 3: 61. Type species: Pristimantis galdi Jiménez de la Espada, 1870, by monotypy.

Cyclocephalus Jiménez de la Espada, 1875, Vert. Viaje Pacif. Verif. 1862–1865: pl. 3. Type species: Cyclocephalus lacrimosus Jiménez de la Espada, 1875, by monotypy. Synonymy with Eleutherodactylus by Lynch and Schwartz, 1971, J. Herpetol., 5: 103–114. Synonymy with Pristimantis by implication of Heinicke, Duellman, and Hedges, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 10092–10094.

Hypodictyon Cope, 1885 "1884", Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 22: 383. Type species: Phyllobates ridens Cope, 1866, by original designation. Synonymy with Syrrhophus by Boulenger, 1888, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1888: 206; with Eleutherodactylus by implication of Taylor, 1952, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 35: 690; with Pristimantis by implication of Heinicke, Duellman, and Hedges, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 10092-10094. Considered a subgenus of Pristimantis by Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 114. Subgenera rejected by Padial, Grant, and Frost, 2014, Zootaxa, 3825: 57, 125. 

LiohylaCope, 1893, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 31: 335. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Leiyla Keferstein, 1868, according to Myers, 1962, Copeia, 1962: 200.

Pseudohyla Andersson, 1945, Ark. Zool., 37A(2): 86. Type species: Pseudohyla nigrogrisea Andersson, 1946 "1945", by monotypy. Synonymy with Eleutherodactylus by Lynch, 1969, Bull. S. California Acad. Sci., 68: 219–224; with Pristimantis by implication of Heinicke, Duellman, and Hedges, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 10092–10094.

Trachyphrynus Goin and Cochran, 1963, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 31: 502. Type species: Trachyphrynus myersi Goin and Cochran, 1963, by original designation. Synonymy with Eleutherodactylus by Lynch, 1968, Herpetologica, 24: 289–300; with Pristimantis by implication of Heinicke, Duellman, and Hedges, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 10092–10094.

Mucubatrachus La Marca, 2007 "2006", Herpetotropicos, Mérida, 3: 68; Type species: Hylodes briceni Boulenger, 1903, by original designation. Synonymy by Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 116–118; this synonymy confirmed by Padial, Grant, and Frost, 2014, Zootaxa, 3825: 56. Recognized without comment by Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 581.

Paramophrynella La Marca, 2007 "2006", Herpetotropicos, Mérida, 3: 84; Type species: Eupsophus ginesi Rivero, 1964, by original designation. Synonymy by Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 116–118; this synonymy confirmed by Padial, Grant, and Frost, 2014, Zootaxa, 3825: 56.

English Names

South American Rain Frogs (Kok and Kalamandeen, 2008, Intr. Taxon. Amph. Kaieteur Natl. Park: 238).

Distribution

Honduras east through Central America through Colombia and Ecuador to Peru, Bolivia, northern Argentina, and Amazonian and Atlantic Forest Brazil and the Guianas; Trinidad and Tobago; Grenada, Lesser Antilles.

Comment

Removed from the synonymy of Eleutherodactylus on the basis of molecular evidence by Heinicke, Duellman, and Hedges, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 10092–10094, where it had been placed by Peters, 1955, Rev. Ecuat. Entomol. Parsitol., 2: 350 (and earlier with Hylodes sensu lato by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 198). See Duellman and Lehr, 2009, Terrest.-breeding Frogs in Peru: 125–258, for brief accounts of the Peruvian species. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543–583, in their study of Genbank sequences, confirmed the monophyly of this taxon, it sister-taxon relationship with Phrynopus + Lynchius + Oreobates, and provided a tree of their molecular exemplar species. Pinto-Sánchez, Ibáñez, Madriñán, Sanjur, Bermingham, and Crawford, 2012, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 62: 954–972, provided an extensive molecular tree of species that suggests that almost none of the nominal subgenera and species groups so far suggested (except likely the Pristimantis pardalis group, the Pristimantis rubicundus group) are monophyletic. Because they examined only 134 of the 437 species these author refrained from reformulating an infrageneric taxonomy. Canedo and Haddad, 2012, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 65: 610-620, provided a molecular cladogram suggesting that Yunganastes is the sister taxon of Pristimantis. Kok, MacCulloch, Means, Roelants, Van Bocxlaer, and Bossuyt, 2012, Curr. Biol., 22: R589–R590, provided a molecular tree of tepui species. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 140–191, provided a key to the genera and species of Brachycephaloidea (= Craugastoridae, Eleutherodactylidae) in Central America and provided maps and photographs of the species. Padial, Grant, and Frost, 2014, Zootaxa, 3825: 56, rejected the subgenera of Hedges et al. (2008) on the basis of the paraphyly of Pristimantis with respect to Hypodictyon.and reformulated the species series and species groups within Pristimantis of previous authors to make them explicitly monophyletic. These authors noted that with the transfer of Pristimantis peruvianus to the Pristimantis conspicillatus group the name of the remainder of the former Pristimantis peruvianus group becomes the Pristimantis danae group. These authors reformulated the species groups of previous authors to be monophyletic. They also transferred the former Pristimantis curtipes, Pristimantis devillei, and Pristimantis surdus species groups as well as Pristimantis thymalopsoides into the Pristimantis devillei group. Pristimantis acuminatus, Pristimantis padiali, Pristimantis tantanti, and Pristimantis pseudoacuminatus from the non-monophyletic Pristimantis unistrigatus group into the Pristimantis lacrimosus species group. 

Contained taxa (473 sp.):

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