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Espadarana audax (Lynch and Duellman, 1973)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Centrolenidae > Subfamily: Centroleninae > Genus: Espadarana > Species: Espadarana audax

Centrolenella audax Lynch and Duellman, 1973, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 16: 16. Holotype: KU 146624, by original designation. Type locality: "Salto de Agua, 2.5 km NNE Río Reventador on Quito--Lago Agrio road, 1660 m, Provincia Napo, Ecuador".

Centrolene audaxRuiz-Carranza and Lynch, 1991, Lozania, 57: 19.

Centrolene fernandoi Duellman and Schulte, 1993, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 155: 4. Holotype: KU 211770, by original designation. Type locality: "west slope of Abra Tangarana, 7 km (by road) northeast of San Juan de Pacaysapa (06° 12′S, 76° 44′ W, 1080 m), Provincia Lamas, Departamento San Martín, Perú". Synonymy by Cisneros-Heredia and Guayasamin, 2014, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 54: 161. 

"Centrolene" fernandoi — Guayasamin, Castroviejo-Fisher, Trueb, Ayarzagüena, Rada, and Vilà, 2009, Zootaxa, 2100: 55.

"Centrolene" audax — Guayasamin, Castroviejo-Fisher, Trueb, Ayarzagüena, Rada, and Vilà, 2009, Zootaxa, 2100: 54.

Espadarana audax — Twomey, Delia, and Castroviejo-Fisher, 2014, Zootaxa, 3851: 1. 

Espadarana fernandoi — Twomey, Delia, and Castroviejo-Fisher, 2014, Zootaxa, 3851: 1. 

English Names

Napo Giant Glass Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 46).

Fernando's Giant Glass Frog (Espadarana fernandoi [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 46).

Distribution

Low montane evergreen forest on the Amazonian versant of Andes in the Departamento San Martín, Peru, Napo Province, Ecuador, and adjacent Putumayo, Colombia, 1350 to 1800 m elevation. 

Comment

In the Centrolene prosoblepon group according to Ruiz-Carranza and Lynch, 1991, Lozania, 57: 1–30. Mueses-Cisneros, 2005, Caldasia, 27: 231, provided a record for the western Amazonian foothills of the Andes in southern Colombia. See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 208 (both as Centrolene audax and Centrolene fernandoi).  

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