Sclerophrys superciliaris (Boulenger, 1888)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Sclerophrys > Species: Sclerophrys superciliaris

Bufo superciliaris Boulenger, 1888 "1887", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1887: 565. Syntypes: BMNH 1947.2.21.41-49 (formerly, according to Grandison, 1985, In Frost (ed.), Amph. Species World: 61. Type locality: "Rio del Rey, Cameroons", Africa.

Bufo laevissimus Werner, 1897, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. München, 27: 212. Syntypes: Not designated; ZSM 148/1989/1-2 (2 juveniles) and ZSM 1113.0 (lost) by museum records according to Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 161. Type locality: "Kamerun". Synonymy with Bufo superciliaris by Boulenger, 1900, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1900: 436.

Bufo superciliosusWerner, 1897, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. München, 27: 214. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Bufo Chevalieri Mocquard, 1908, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, 14: 262. Holotype: MNHNP 1908.33, according to Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 12. Type locality: "Côte-d'Ivoire". Synonymy; without discussion, by Tandy and Keith, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 160.

Amietophrynus superciliarisFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 363.

Amietophrynus superciliaris superciliarisBarej, Schmitz, Menegon, Hillers, Hinkel, Böhme, and Rödel, 2011, Zootaxa, 2772: 9.

Amietophrynus superciliaris chevalieriBarej, Schmitz, Menegon, Hillers, Hinkel, Böhme, and Rödel, 2011, Zootaxa, 2772: 9.

Sclerophrys superciliaris — Ohler and Dubois, 2016, PeerJ, 4(e1553): 9.

English Names

Cameroon Toad (Cochran, 1961, Living Amph. World: 97; USFWS; CITES).


In two blocks of West African blocks of forest: 1) southeastern Guinea, eastern Sierra Leone, Liberia, and southern Ivory Coast to southwestern Ghana; 2) southeastern Nigeria south through western Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea to northern Gabon. An isolated record in southwestern Central African Republic may refer to this species or to Sclerophrys channingi.


See account in Perret, 1966, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 93: 312-313 (in the sense of including what is now Amietophrynus channingi). In the Bufo superciliaris group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 62, and Tandy and Keith, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 160. Gabon records by Lötters, Gossmann, Obame, and Böhme, 2001, Herpetofauna, Weinstadt, 23: 22, and Frétey and Blanc, 2001, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 126: 380, reported this species from Gabon. See brief comments by Rödel, Bangoura, and Böhme, 2004, Herpetozoa, Wien, 17: 108, regarding range and natural history. Schiøtz, 1963, Vidensk. Medd. Dansk Naturhist. Foren., 125: 22, provided records for Nigeria. Hillers and Rödel, 2007, Salamandra, 43: 1-10, reported the species for Liberia. Barej, Schmitz, Menegon, Hillers, Hinkel, Böhme, and Rödel, 2011, Zootaxa, 2772: 1-32, provided the most recent revision, recognizing the eastern Dem. Rep. Congo population as Amietophrynus channingi, and the populations in the eastern and western Guinean forest blocks as, respectively, Amietophrynus superciliaris chevalieri and Amietophrynus superciliaris superciliaris. Sclerophrys superciliaris superciliaris appears to share with Sclerophrys the apparent synapomorphy of a distinctive eyelid process, suggesting that nominal Sclerophrys superciliaris is paraphyletic with respect to Sclerophrys channingi. Should this be the case one expects that these allopatric and diagnosable subspecies should be regarded as species, Amietophrynus chevalieri and Amietophrynus superciliaris (DRF). Jongsma, Tobi, Dixon-MacCallum, Bamba-Kaya, Yoga, Mbega, Mve Beh, Emrich, and Blackburn, 2017, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 11 (1: e144): 8–9, provided a record for southeastern Gabon and briefly discussed habitat and range.

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