Sclerophrys regularis (Reuss, 1833)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Sclerophrys > Species: Sclerophrys regularis

Bufo nubicus Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Class. Rept.: 65. Type(s): Not stated, presumably originally in NHMW. Type locality: "Nubiscscher B. Ex Africa, Nubia". Nomen nudum. Synonymy with Bufo regularis by Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 545-574.

Bufo regularis Reuss, 1833, Mus. Senckenb., 1: 60. Syntypes: SMF 1298.1c-d (according to Boettger, 1892, Kat. Batr. Samml. Mus. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges.: vi); SMF 3429 (formerly 1298.1c) designated lectotype by Mertens, 1967, Senckenb. Biol., 48(A): 40. Type locality: "Aegypten".

Bufo pantherinus Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 88. Nomen nudum coined as a synonym of Bufo arabicus Rüppell and Bufo regularis Ruess. Synonymy with Bufo mauritanicus by Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 557, presumably because Bufo pantherinus Duméril and Bibron, 1841, is a synonym of Bufo mauritanicus.

Bufo pantherinus Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 687. Types: RMNH by implication. Type locality: "l'occident de l'Asie, ainse que le sud-ouest et le nord de l'Afrique . . . . d'Égypte . . . dans les environs de Bone et d'Alger; enfin nous en avons deux provenant de l'Arabie Pétrée"; restricted by Loveridge, 1957, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 117: 151-362, to Egypt. Junior homonym of Bufo pantherinus Smith, 1828. Named as a synonym of Bufo arabicus Rüppell, Bufo regularis Ruess, and attributed to Boie. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 563. Includes specimens of Bufo regularis and Bufo mauritanicus, according to Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 545-574. Considered a synonym of Bufo regularis by Peters, 1882, Naturwiss. Reise Mossambique, Zool. 3: 178, but it is not known if specimens were examined. See discussion in Poynton and Lambiris, 1998, Afr. J. Herpetol., 47: 3-12 (who noted that Bufo pantherinus Smith, 1828, was likely also included in the hypodigm).

Rana mosaica Seetzen, 1855, Reisen Syrien, 3: 492. Syntypes: 2 specimens, presumably deposited in ZMB. Type locality: "Kahira" (= Cairo), Egypt. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 560; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 298; synonymy considered tentative by Tandy and Keith, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 159.

Bufo guineensis Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 59. Syntypes: BMNH (5, including specimens of Bufo regularis and Bufo pusillus), according to Poynton, 1964, Ann. Natal Mus., 17: 53. Type localities: "West Africa", "Fernando Po" (= Bioko, Equatorial Guinea), "Coast of Guinea", and "Sierra Leone"; restricted to Elmina, Ghana (according to Poynton, 1964, Ann. Natal Mus., 17: 51). Synonymy by Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 560; Peters, 1882, Naturwiss. Reise Mossambique, Zool. 3: 178; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 298.

Bufo amoenus Rochebrune, 1884, Fauna Senegambie, Amph.: 12. Types: Including animal figured in pl.1, fig. 2 of the original publication, possibly in MNHNP, but not known to be there now. Type localities: "Gadieba, Diaoudoun, Sebicoutane, Samone, Kounakeri, Ile aux Chiens, Mélacorée, Sedhiou", Senegamiba. Provisional distinction from Bufo regularis noted in original. Regarded as a nomen dubium by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 145. Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 83, tentatively assigned it to the synonymy of Bufo regularis.

Bufo sauvagei Rochebrune, 1884, Fauna Senegambie, Amph.: tab. 3. Types: Including animal figured in Pl. 3, fig. 2 of original; likely deposited in MNHNP, but not reported in recent type lists and therefore considered lost. Type localities: "Galam, Oualo, Bokol, lac de N'Guer, Kouma, Samone, Merinaghem, Gadieba", Senegambia. Regarded as a nomen dubium by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 145. Tentatively assigned to the synonymy of Bufo regularis by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 83.

Bufo buccinator Rochebrune, 1884, Fauna Senegambie, Amph.: tab. 4. Types: Including animal figured in Pl. 4, fig. 1 of original; possibly deposited in MNHNP, but not mentioned in type lists and presumed lost. Type locality: "Saint-Louis, Sorres, Guet-N'Dar, N'Dar-Tout, Diouk, Thionk, Leybar, Gandiole, Joalles, Rufisque, Podor, Saldé, Dagana, Gambie, Casamence", Senegambia. Regarded as a nomen dubium by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 145. Tentatively assigned to the synonymy of Bufo regularis by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 83.

Bufo neglectus Rochebrune, 1884, Fauna Senegambie, Amph.: 13. Types: Including animal figured in Pl. 3, fig. 1 of original; possibly deposited in MNHNP but not reported in type lists and presumed lost. Type localities: "Leybar, Diouk, Daka-Bango, Thionk, Gandiole, Hann, Pone, Joalles, Rufisque", Senegambia. Synonymy by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 95.

Bufo regularis var. spinosaBoettger, 1892, Kat. Batr. Samml. Mus. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges.: 35. Status rejected by Noble, 1924, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 49: 171.

Bufo regularis regularisLoveridge, 1936, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser., 22: 80.

Amietophrynus regularisFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 363.

Sclerophrys reesi — Ohler and Dubois, 2016, PeerJ, 4(e1553): 9.

English Names

Reuss's Toad (Flower, 1933, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1933: 839).

Square-marked Toad (Stewart and Wilson, 1966, Ann. Natal Mus., 18: 297; Broadley, 1971, Puku, 6: 108; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43).

Common Square-marked Toad (Broadley, 1973, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 10: 22).

African Toad (Van Dijk, 1978, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 17: 15).

African Bouncing Toad (Trade name).

Common Toad (Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 89).

Common African Toad (Emms, Jambang, Bah, Mankali, Rödel, and Barnett, 2005, Herpetol. Bull., London, 94: 9).

Egyptian Toad (Baha El Din, 2006, Guide Rept. Amph. Egypt: 33).

Egyptian Square-marked Toad (Largen and Spawls, 2010, Amph. Rept. Ethiopia Eritrea: 74).

Distribution

Subsaharan West Africa to the oases of Djanet in Algeria and Gat in Libya to northern Nilotic Egypt, western Eritrea, western and northern Ethiopia southward along the Atlantic coast from Cameroon through Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, and western Dem. Rep. Congto to northwestern Angola; west from Cameroon to northeastern Dem. Rep. Congo, Uganda, and southern Kenya in savanna and farmbush; introduced on Cape Verde Islands.

Comment

In the Bufo regularis group. See Schmidt and Inger, 1959, Explor. Parc Natl. Upemba, Miss. G.F. de Witte, 56: 27-33. See Stearn, 1938, J. Soc. Bibliograph. Nat. Hist., 1: 155, for discussion of the publication data of the description. See comment under Bufo kassasii. Gabon record by Lötters, Gossmann, Obame, and Böhme, 2001, Herpetofauna, Weinstadt, 23: 22. Lever, 2003, Naturalized Rept. Amph. World: 176, reported on an introduced population in Mauritius. Padial and De la Riva, 2004, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 18: 92, provided a record from Mauritania. Wanger, 2005, Salamandra, 41: 27-33, provided Gambia records. Schiøtz, 1963, Vidensk. Medd. Dansk Naturhist. Foren., 125: 16-17, provided records for Nigeria. Emms, Jambang, Bah, Mankali, Rödel, and Barnett, 2005, Herpetol. Bull., London, 94: 6-16, provided records for Gambia. Baha El Din, 2006, Guide Rept. Amph. Egypt: 33-35, provided an account for Egypt. Pickersgill, 2007, Frog Search: 535-538, provided discussion relevant to the southern populations. Jackson and Blackburn, 2007, Salamandra, 43: 149-164, provided a record for Nouabale-Ndoki National Park, Rep. Congo. See account (as Bufo regularis), photograph, and map by Largen and Spawls, 2010, Amph. Rept. Ethiopia Eritrea: 74-76. Vasconcelos, Froufe, Brito, Carranza, and Harris, 2010, Afr. Zool., 45: 291-298, 1) reported on mtDNA phylogeography of the species, and 2) noted misidentifications incorrectly associated via Genbank with putative Amietophrynus regularis by Pauly et al. (2004); Frost et al. (2006), and van Bocxlaer et al. (2009). Channing, Rödel, and Channing, 2012, Tadpoles of Africa: 137, reported on comparative tadpole morphology.

External links:

Please note: these links will take you to external websites not affiliated with the American Museum of Natural History. We are not responsible for their content.