Rhinella ocellata (Günther, 1858)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella ocellata

Bufo ocellatus Günther, 1858, Arch. Naturgesch., 24: 64. Holotype: BMNH 1947.2.21.86 (formerly 57.10.28.57) according to M.S. Hoogmoed in Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 55. Type locality: "Brasilien".

Chilophryne ocellataCope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 358.

"Bufo" ocellatusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 363. Excluded from Bufo and unassigned to genus.

Rhinella ocellataFouquet, Vences, Salducci, Meyer, Marty, Blanc, and Gilles, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 43: 567-582. by implication of placing "Bufo" ocellatus within the Rhinella margaritifera group; Pramuk, Robertson, Sites, and Noonan, 2008, Global Ecol. Biogeograph., 17: 76.

English Names

Ocellated Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 42).

Distribution

Brazilian cerrados in Minas Gerais (Januária), Mato Grosso (Posto Pimentel Barbosa), Goiás (Ilha do Bananal), and Pará (Cachimbo); a possibly isolated population in in the northeastern part of the state of Maranhão.

Comment

Discussed and redescribed by Leão and Cochran, 1952, Mem. Inst. Butantan, São Paulo, 24: 271-280, who noted that it resembled Bufo granulosus or Bufo marmoreus, and removed it from the synonymy of "Bufo typhonius" (= Bufo margaritifer), where it had been placed by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 317. See also comments by Hoogmoed, 1990, in Peters and Hutterer (eds.), Vert. Tropics: 117, who revalidated their opinion that this species is not a member of the Bufo margaritifer group as suggested by some authors (e.g., Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 140). See account by Cochran, 1955 "1954", Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 206: 30-31. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297, suggested that this species is not a member of the monophyletic taxon Bufo (the former Bufo bufo group), but could not allocate this species to any of the other genera either, instead leaving this species in a non-taxon "Bufo" which they denoted as polyphyletic by placing the name in quotation marks. Pramuk, 2006, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 146: 407-452, considered "Bufo" ocellatus to be the sister taxon of Rhinella in her analysis (but within the paradigm of a gigantic and paraphyletic Bufo). Fouquet, Vences, Salducci, Meyer, Marty, Blanc, and Gilles, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 43: 567-582; explicitly placed "Bufo" ocellatus within the Rhinella margaritifera group so I (DRF) take that as an implied transfer to RhinellaMatavelli, Campos, Silva, and Andrade, 2014, Check List, 10: 432–433, provided several records for the state of Maranhão, Brazil, and discussed the ecological and geographical aspects of the range. 

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