Phrynoidis Fitzinger in Treitschke, 1842

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Phrynoidis
2 species

Phrynoidis Fitzinger inTreitschke, 1842, Naturhistorisch. Bild. Thierr., 3: 166. Type species: Bufo asper Gravenhorst, 1829, by monotypy. 

Phrynoidis Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 32. Type species: Bufo asper Gravenhorst, 1829, by original designation.

English Names

Rough Toads (Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2009, Herpetofauna Vietnam: 72).

Distribution

Southern Myanmar through western and peninsular Thailand to Sumatra, Borneo, and Java; in Vietnam on the border of Gia Lai and Dac Lac provinces to the northwest of Plei Tung Than at approximately 700 m; presumably also in intervening Cambodia and Laos.

Comment

Redelimited and removed from the synonymy of Bufo by Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 214, where it had been placed by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 281. The literature of Phrynoidis is deeply entwined in the literature of Bufo until 2005. See Bufonidae account for access to other relevant literature. Smith and Chiszar, 2006, Herpetol. Conserv. Biol., 1: 6-8, implied that this taxon should be considered a subgenus of Bufo; see comment under Bufonidae. Matsui, Yambun Imbun, and Sudin, 2007, Zool. Sci., Tokyo, 24: 1159-1166, corroborated a close relationship between Phrynoidis and Pedostibes previously suggested by Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 215. Pramuk, Robertson, Sites, and Noonan, 2008, Global Ecol. Biogeograph., 17: 72-83, suggested that Phrynoidis is in a clade containing Duttaphrynus and Schismaderma (Pedostibes not having been included in their analysis). Van Bocxlaer, Biju, Loader, and Bossuyt, 2009, BMC Evol. Biol., 9 (e131): 1-10, and Van Bocxlaer, Loader, Roelants, Biju, Menegon, and Bossuyt, 2010, Science, 327: 679-682, suggested on the basis of substantially more data and denser taxon sampling that Phrynoidis is the sister taxon of "Pedostibes" hosii, and distant from any African taxon. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543-583, in their study of Genbank sequences, confirmed the monophyly of Phrynoidis (although this is difficult to see because they adopted an explicitly non-monophyletic and outdated taxonomy), and suggested it to be the sister taxon of a group composed of "Pedostibes" rugosus and "Pedostibes" hosiiSchmidtler, 2013, Herpetozoa, Wien, 26: 15-26, discussed the original naming and gender of this generic name.

Contained taxa (2 sp.):

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