Ingerophrynus Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Ingerophrynus
12 species

Ingerophrynus Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 219. Type species: Bufo biporcatus Gravenhorst, 1829, by original designation.

Qiangbufo Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 261. Type species: Bufo ledongensis Fei, Yei, and Huang, 2009, by original designation. Provisionally retained here (DRF) because recognition would render Ingerophrynus paraphyletic. 

Qiangobufo — Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 778. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Qiangbufo

English Names

Hainan Toads (QiangbufoFei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 596). 

Distribution

Southern Yunnan and Indochina west to Myanmar; peninsular Thailand and Malaya to Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Nias I., Sulawesi, and Philippines.

Comment

Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297, suggested on the basis of DNA sequence evidence that Ingerophrynus is distantly related to other asiatic bufonids. Smith and Chiszar, 2006, Herpetol. Conserv. Biol., 1: 6-8, implied that this taxon should be considered a subgenus of Bufo; see comment under Bufonidae. Matsui, Yambun Imbun, and Sudin, 2007, Zool. Sci., Tokyo, 24: 1159-1166, provided evidence that Ingerophrynus is in a clade with Sabahphrynus, Leptophryne, and Didynamipus. Van Bocxlaer, Biju, Loader, and Bossuyt, 2009, BMC Evol. Biol., 9 (e131): 1-10, on the basis of a different molecular data set suggested that Ingerophrynus is the sister taxon of Leptophryne. Subsequently, on the basis of denser taxon sampling, Van Bocxlaer, Loader, Roelants, Biju, Menegon, and Bossuyt, 2010, Science, 327: 679-682, suggested that Ingerophrynus is the sister taxon of Sabahphrynus (not included in the earlier analysis). Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543-583, in their study of Genbank sequences, confirmed the monophyly of this taxon (although this is obscured by their explicit adoption of an out-dated and non-monophyletic taxonomy), its placement as the sister taxon of Sabahphrynus, and provided a tree of exemplar species.

Contained taxa (12 sp.):

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