Incilius coniferus (Cope, 1862)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Incilius > Species: Incilius coniferus

Bufo coniferus Cope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 158. Holotype: USNM 4335 according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 32. Type locality: "Turbo region, New Granada" = Chocó, Colombia, according to Cochran and Goin, 1970, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 288: 109.

Chilophryne coniferaCope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 358.

Incilius coniferusCope, 1863, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 15: 50.

Bufo auritus Cope, 1875 "1876", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 8: 99. Syntypes: 2 specimens, including USNM 30676, according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 31, other not located, possibly originally in Philadelphia Museum or ANSP and now lost. Type locality: "East coast region"; corrected to "Costa Rica, coast of eastern or east coast region, Cantón de Limón", by Savage, 1974, Rev. Biol. Tropical, 22: 89. Homonym of Bufo auritus Raddi, 1823 (= Ceratophrys aurita). Synonymy with Bufo gabbi by Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 31; with Bufo coniferus by Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 208.

Bufo ehlersi Werner, 1899, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 49: 481. Holotype: Originally ZIUG, now ZFMK 21414 ; by implication according to Böhme and Bischoff, 1984, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 19: 178. Type locality: "El Bergell, über Guaduas, 1400 m", Colombia. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1900, Zool. Rec., 36: 29; Günther, 1901, Biol. Centr. Amer., Rept. Batr., Vol. 7, Part 162: 251; Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 133.

Bufo gabbi Taylor, 1952, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 35: 619. Replacement name for Bufo auritus Cope, 1875.

Bufo coniferDuellman, 1993, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 21: 25. Incorrect subsequent spelling (Art. 32.5.1, 1999 Code).

Cranopsis coniferaFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364.

Ollotis coniferaFrost, Grant, and Mendelson, 2006, Copeia, 2006: 558, by implication.

Incilius coniferusFrost, Mendelson, and Pramuk, 2009, Copeia, 2009: 418-419, by implication.

English Names

Evergreen Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41).

Talamanca Toad (Bufo gabbi [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41).

Distribution

East-central Nicaragua; Costa Rica and Panama on both Atlantic and Pacific slopes, extending to Pacific lowlands of Colombia and northern Ecuador, sea level to 1550 m elevation.

Comment

In the former Bufo valliceps group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 49. See Taylor, 1952, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 35: 611–615, and Cochran and Goin, 1970, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 288: 109, for accounts. Nicaragua record by Köhler, 1999, Cour. Forschungsinst. Senckenb., 213: 14. See account by Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 207–208. See comments by Sunyer, Páiz, Dehling, and Köhler, 2009, Herpetol. Notes, 2: 189–202, regarding Nicaraguan populations. Travers, Townsend, Sunyer, Obando, Wilson, and Nickerson, 2011, Herpetol. Rev., 42: 399, noted a new locality in Nicaragua (Jinotega). Mendelson, Mulcahy, Williams, and Sites, 2011, Zootaxa, 3138: 1–34, suggested that this species is a member of a monophyletic Incilius coniferus group that includes Incilius coniferus, Incilius chompipe, Incilius epioticus, Incilius fastidiosus, Incilius guanacastes, Incilius holdridgei, Incilius karenlipsae, Incilius periglenes, and Incilius peripatetes. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 104–115, compared this species to others in Central America and provided a range map and photograph. 

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