Incilius Cope, 1863

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Incilius
39 species

Incilius Cope, 1863, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 15: 50. Type species: Bufo coniferus Cope, 1862, by subsequent designation of Kellogg, 1932, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 160: 29; the designation of Bufo cognatus Say, 1823, as type species by Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 222, is in error, according to Frost, Mendelson, and Pramuk, 2009, Copeia, 2009: 418–419.

Cranopsis Cope, 1875 "1876", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 8: 96. Type species: Cranopsis fastidiosus Cope, 1875 "1876", by monotypy. Junior homonym of Cranopsis Adams, 1860 (Mollusca) and Cranopsis Dall, 1871 (Brachiopoda). Synonymy by Frost, Mendelson, and Pramuk, 2009, Copeia, 2009: 418-419.

Ollotis Cope, 1875 "1876", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 8: 98. Type species: Ollotis coerulescens Cope, 1875, by monotypy. Synonymy by Frost, Mendelson, and Pramuk, 2009, Copeia, 2009: 418-419.

Crepidius Cope, 1875 "1876", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 8: 97. Type species: Crepidius epioticus Cope, 1875, by monotypy. Primary homonym of Crepidius Candeze, 1859 (Coleoptera).

Crepidophryne Cope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 260. Replacement name for Crepidius Cope 1875 "1876". Synonymy with Incilius by Mendelson, Mulcahy, Williams, and Sites, 2011, Zootaxa, 3138: 19.

Cranophryne Cope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 20. Replacement name for Cranopsis Cope, 1875 "1876".

English Names

Central American Toads (Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2008, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 37: 9; Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 17; Frost, McDiarmid, Mendelson, and Green, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 16; Frost, Lemmon, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 12).

Middle American Toads (Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: XXX). 

Cerro Utyum Toads (Crepidophryne [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 44).

Distribution

Southern USA south to Panama and then south along the Pacific versant to Ecuador.

Comment

 Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 104–115, compared this genus (as Incilius and Crepidophryne) to others in Central America, provided a brief summary of natural history, identification keys, range maps, and photographs. Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 313, considered Incilius a subgenus of Bufo, cherry-picking their citation to literature (excluding any reference to  Van Bocxlaer, Biju, Loader, and Bossuyt, 2009, BMC Evol. Biol., 9 (e131): 1–10, Van Bocxlaer, Loader, Roelants, Biju, Menegon, and Bossuyt, 2010, Science, 327: 679–682, or Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543–583, which provided results not congruent with the story that Fouquette and Dubois wanted to tell) to avoid recognizing that treating this genus as a subgenus of Bufo also requires under current understanding of phylogeny all Old-World bufonids, such as SabahphrynusNectophryne, and Ansonia to be treated as subgenera of Bufo as well. Van Bocxlaer, Biju, Loader, and Bossuyt, 2009, BMC Evol. Biol., 9 (e131): 1–10, did not confirm a monophyletic Incilius, Incilius bocourti in their analysis possibly forming the sister taxon of Anaxyrus. Mendelson, Mulcahy, Williams, and Sites, 2011, Zootaxa, 3138: 1–34, with additional data and denser sampling did recover a monophyletic Incilius

Contained taxa (39 sp.):

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