Epidalea calamita (Laurenti, 1768)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Epidalea > Species: Epidalea calamita

Bufo calamita Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 27, 119. Types: Including frog(s) illustrated by Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost.: pl. 24. Type locality: "in variis latebris terrae rimis, murorum cavis, ac foraminibus"; restricted to "Mitteldeutschland" (= central Germany) by Mertens and Müller, 1928, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 41: 18; restricted to "Nürnberg", Germany by Mertens and Müller, 1940, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 451: 17. See nomenclatural discussion by Novarini and Bonato, 2010, Acta Herpetol., Firenze, 5: 37-62.

Rana foetidissima Hermann, 1783, Tab. Aff. Animal. Acad. Spec.: 260. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: Not stated. Synonymy by Oken, 1816, Lehrb. Naturgesch., 3(2): 209; Schinz, 1822, Thierr. Naturgesch., 2: 171; Bonaparte, 1835, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 14): unnumbered; Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 88; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 57 (not mentioned by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2); Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2. Note: It is not clear in the original publication that "Ranae foetidissimae" is anything other than a vernacular generalization, rather than the coining of a new name.—DRF.

Rana portentosa Blumenbach, 1788, Handb. Naturgesch., Ed. 3: 262. Substitute name for Bufo calamita. Synonymy by Retzius, 1800, Fauna Svec., ed. 3, 1: 284; Oken, 1816, Lehrb. Naturgesch., 3(2): 209; Schinz, 1822, Thierr. Naturgesch., 2: 171; Bonaparte, 1835, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 14): unnumbered; Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 88; Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 448; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 57; Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 141; (not mentioned by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2); Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 236.

Rana ecaudata Razoumovsky, 1789, Hist. Nat. Jorat, 1: 281. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "environs de Crissier", Switzerland. Synonymy by Fatio, 1872, Fauna Vert. Suisse, 3: 402.

Bufo cruciatus Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 193. Types: specimen figured Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost.: 106, pl. 24. Type locality: "Germania". Synonymy by Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 77; Daudin, 1803 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Rept., 8: 153; Schinz, 1822, Thierr. Naturgesch., 2: 171; Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 88; Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 448; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 57; Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 141; Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 547; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 294.

Rana mephitica Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 143. Types: Based in part on the specimen figured by Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost.: 106, pl. 24, fig. 1. Type locality: "Germany". Synonymy by Gravenhorst, 1807, Vergleich. Uebersicht Linn. Neuern Zool. Syst.: 435; Schinz, 1822, Thierr. Naturgesch., 2: 171; Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 88; Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 448; Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 681; Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 141; Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 236.

Bufo portentosaLeunis, 1844, Synops. Drei Naturr., Zool., Ed. 1: 147.

Epidalea calamitaCope, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 16: 181. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 365.

Bufo calamita var. alpestris Koch, 1872, Ber. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 1871–72: 169. Type(s): Not mentioned, but presumably originally in SMF. Type locality: "dieselbe bei Dillenburg und Herborn, vereinzelt an höheren trockenen Bergen der Lahngegend", Germany.

Bufo viridis var. calamitaCamerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 233.

Bufo (Epidalea) calamitaDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 25. See comment under Bufo Garsault, 1764.

English Names

Mephitic Toad (Rana mephitica [no longer recognized]: Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 149).

Natter Jack (Fleming, 1828, Hist. Brit. Animals: 159; Jenyns, 1835, Manual Brit. Vert. Animals: 302; Günther, 1864, Rept. Brit. India: 420; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 45).

Natterjack (Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 167; Gadow, 1901, Amphibia and Reptiles: 181; Arnold and Burton, 1978, Field Guide Rept. Amph. Brit. Eur.: 73; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41; Beebee, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 121; Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 74).

Calamite (Lacépède, 1802, Nat. Hist. Ovip. Quadruped. (Kerr transl.): 304).

Natter-jack Toad (Bell, 1839, Hist. Brit. Rept.: 116).

Natterjack Toad (Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 45; Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 271).

Running Toad (Hellmich, 1962, Rept. Amph. Eur.: 64; Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 37).

Distribution

Western and northern Europe as far east as western Russia and including parts of England and Ireland.

Comment

In the Bufo calamita group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 63. In the Bufo viridis group of Inger, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 107. See account by Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 271-275. Beebee, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 120-121, discussed relevant literature and distribution. Barbadillo-Escrivá, 1987, Guia INCAFO Anf. Rept. Peninsula Iberica: 155-159, provided an account for the Iberian populations. Beebee and Rowe, 2000, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 69: 367-381, discussed phylogeography of the taxon. Stöck, Bretschneider, and Grosse, 2001 "2000", Russ. J. Herpetol., 7: 215-226, compared bioacoustics with that of the Bufo viridis subgroup and Bufo raddei. Nöllert and Nöllert, 1992, Die Amph. Eur.: 293-297, provided an account and polygon map. Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 74-75, provided a brief account, figure, and map. Tejedo and Reques, 1997, in Pleguezuelos (ed.), Dist. Biogeogr. Anf. Rep. Esp. Portugal: 155-157, provided a brief account, photograph, and detailed map for Iberia. Gislén and Kauri, 1959, Acta Vert., Stockholm, 1: 285-289, reported on Swedish populations. Pikulik, 1996, Zemnavodnyia Pauzuny: 118-120, provided an account for Belarus populations. Llorente, Montori, Santos, and Carretero, 1995, Atlas Amf. Rept. Catalunya Andorra: 69-71, provided an account and detailed range map for Catalunya. Rowe, Harris, and Beebee, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 39: 335-346, reported on the phylogeography of this species and its Pleistocene refugia. Naumov, 2005, Acta Zool. Bulgarica, 57: 391, provided records for Bulgaria. Korky, 2008, Bull. Irish Biogeograph. Soc., 32: 21-31, discussed biology and declines in Ireland. Verboom, Musters, and van der Lugt, 2009, in Creemers and van Delft (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nederland: 174-185, provided a detailed account for the Netherlands. Rivera, Escoriza, Maluquer-Margalef, Arribas, and Carranza, 2011, Amf. Rept. Catalunya: 78-81, provided a brief account (as Bufo calamita) for northeastern Spain and adjacent France. Korky and Webb, 1999, Bull. Irish Biogeograph. Soc., 23: 2-52, reported on distribution, biogeography, and conservation in Ireland. Korky and Webb, 2001, Bull. Irish Biogeograph. Soc., 25: 144-167, reported on geographic variation in larvae in Ireland. Gleed-Owen, Marnell, and Korky, 1999, Bull. Irish Biogeograph. Soc., 23: 53-59, discussed the colonization of Ireland. Korky and Smallwood, 2006, Bull. Irish Biogeograph. Soc., 30: 11-27, discussed larval differences between Poland and Ireland and discussed the post-glacial expansion of the range. Korky, 2011, Bull. Irish Biogeograph. Soc., 35: 10-20, reported on breeding habitat in southwestern Ireland.

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