Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Duttaphrynus > Species: Duttaphrynus melanostictus

Bufo melanostictus Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 216. Type(s): "Museum Blochianum" (= ZMB); ZMB 3462-63 are syntypes according to Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 80. ZMB 3462 designated lectotype by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 139 (who redescribed this type). Type locality: "India orientali".

Bufo chlorogaster Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 74. Type(s): Not stated but presumably originally in MNHNP; not mentioned by Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., so presumably lost or never there. Type locality: "sur une montagne de l'île Java", Indonesia. A nomen dubium according to Van Kampen, 1923, Amph. Indo-Austral. Arch.: 74. Provisional synonymy with Bufo melanostictus by Iskandar, 1998, Amph. Java Bali: 47. Provisionally allocated to the Bufo stomaticus group by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 169.

Rana dubia Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 157. Holotype: BMNH, now lost according to Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 144, who designated ZMB 3462 (the lectotype of Bufo melanostictus Schneider, 1799) as neotype. Type locality: Not designated, but see discussion by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 143-144. Neotype from "India orientali". Synonymy by Girard, 1858, U.S. Explor. Exped. 1838–1842, 20: 92; Anderson, 1879 "1878", Anat. Zool. Res.: 842; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 306.

Bufo scaber Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 94. Types: Animal figured on page 94, pl. 34, fig. 1, of the original publication, presumably originally placed in the MNHNP (now lost) and ZMB according to Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 144; ZMB 3464 recorded as a syntype by Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 76-82; ZMB 3462 designated lectotype by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 145. Type locality: "India orientali". Synonymy under Bufo melanostictus by Gravenhorst, 1829, Delic. Mus. Zool. Vratislav., 1: 57; Kelaart, 1853, Prodr. Faunae Zeylan., 1: 194. Synonymy (with Bufo melanostictus, under Bufo scaber) by Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 94; Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 699; Girard, 1858, U.S. Explor. Exped. 1838–1842, 20: 92; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 61; Peters, 1860, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1860: 186; Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 42; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 306. Junior primary homonym of Bufo scaber Schneider, 1799. Recognized; without discussion, by Bourret, 1927, Fauna Indochine, Vert., 3: 260.

Bufo bengalensis Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 96. Holotype: Frog figured on page 96, pl. 35, fig. 1, and deposited in MNHNP; now lost according to Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 145, who designated MNHNP 4967 neotype. Type locality: "Bengale"; neotype from the same type locality. Synonymy under Bufo melanostictus by Gravenhorst, 1829, Delic. Mus. Zool. Vratislav., 1: 57; Kelaart, 1853, Prodr. Faunae Zeylan., 1: 194. Synonymy (with Bufo scaber and Bufo melanostictus, as Bufo scaber) by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 699; Girard, 1858, U.S. Explor. Exped. 1838–1842, 20: 92; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 61; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 306.

Bufo flaviventris Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 74, pl. 74, alternative name for Bufo chlorogaster Daudin, 1802.

Rana melanostictaShaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 174.

Bufo carinatus Gray, 1830, Illust. Indian Zool., Part 1: pl. 83. Holotype: Animal originally figured; possibly originally in collection of Thomas Hardwicke, possibly subsequently deposited in the BMNH; now lost according to Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 146, who designated MNHNP 4967 neotype. Type locality: "Bengal"; neotype from "Bengale". Synonymy by Kelaart, 1853, Prodr. Faunae Zeylan., 1: 194; Girard, 1858, U.S. Explor. Exped. 1838–1842, 20: 92; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 61; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 306.

Bufo dubiusGray, 1830, Illust. Indian Zool., Part 1: viii, plate 83.

Bufo isos Lesson, 1834, in Bélanger (ed.), Voy. Indes-Orientales N. Eur. Caucase Georgie Perse, Zool.: 333. Type(s): Including animal figured on pl. 7 of the Atlas volume of the original. Syntypes are MNHNP 4966-67, according to Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 13; this rejected by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 147, who noted that the description rests on a single specimen MNHNP 4967, presumably the same animal figured. Type locality: "Bengale". Synonymy by Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 42; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 306. Recognized without discussion by Bourret, 1927, Fauna Indochine, Vert., 3: 260.

Bufo gymnauchen Bleeker, 1858, Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Nederl. Indie, 16: 46. Type(s): Not stated; BMNH and RMNH have specimens considered types (RMNH 3961 is a former syntype according to Gassó Miracle, van den Hoek Ostende, and Arntzen, 2007, Zootaxa, 1482: 33); BMNH 1947.2.21.71 designated lectotype by implication by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 307, referral to the BMNH specimen from "Bintang" as "type". Type locality: "Indischen archipel"; corrected to Bintang [Pulau Bintang, Roux Archipelago] by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 307, and Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 70. Tentative synonymy with Bufo melanostictus by Stoliczka, 1870, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 39: 152. Synonymy with Bufo isos by Peters, 1872, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 3: 27-45. Synonymy with Bufo melanostictus by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 306, and Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 71.

Docidophryne isosFitzinger, 1861 "1860", Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 42: 415. Cope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 358.

Docidophryne spinipes Fitzinger, 1861 "1860", Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 42: 415. Type(s): Presumably originally in NHMW or ZIUW. Type locality: "Nicobaren". Nomen nudum. Synonymy by Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 43. Synonymy questioned by Crombie, 1986, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 83: 227.

Phrynoidis melanostictusCope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 358.

Bufo spinipes Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 42. Syntypes: NHMW (4 specimens); NHMW 5371.1 designated lectotype by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 150. Type locality: "Nikobaren" [= Nicobar Islands]. Synonymy by Stoliczka, 1870, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 39: 156; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 306. Secondary homonym of Bufo spinipes (Daudin, 1802).

Bufo longecristatus Werner, 1903, Zool. Anz., 26: 252. Holotype: IRSNB 9422 according to Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 155. Type locality: "Inneres von Borneo". Synonymy by Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 70.

Bufo tienhoensis Bourret, 1937, Annexe Bull. Gen. Instr. Publique, Hanoi, 1937: 6, 11. Syntypes: MNHNP 48.123-124 (formerly Lab. Sci. Nat. Univ. Hanoi B-126 and B-127), according to Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 15. MNHNP 48.0124 designated lectotype by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 162. Type locality: "col de Tien-Ho (Route de Lang-Son, Tonkin, alt. 300 m.)", Vietnam. Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 163. This apparently doubted by Orlov, Murphy, Ananjeva, Ryabov, and Ho, 2002, Russ. J. Herpetol., 9: 85.

Docidophryne melanostictusBourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 173.

Bufo camortensis Mansukhani and Sarkar, 1980, Bull. Zool. Surv. India, 3: 97. Holotype: ZSIC A6955, by original designation. Type locality: "compound of Camorta Guest House, Camorta, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India". Synonymy by Crombie, 1986, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 83: 226-229.

Ansonia kamblei Ravichandran and Pillai, 1990, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, 86: 506. Holotype: ZSI-WRS V/198, by original designation. Type locality: "Jeur, 29 Km North of Tembhurni, Karnala, Dist.: Sholapur, Maharashtra State, Field Station No. 6", India. Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 167.

Bufo melanostictus melanostictusKhan, 2001, Pakistan J. Zool., 33: 297, by implication.

Bufo melanostictus hazarensis Khan, 2001, Pakistan J. Zool., 33: 297. Syntypes: Not designated by number or museum, presumably in M.S. Khan's personal collection. Type localities: "Ooghi, Manshera, and Data, Hazara Division, eastern NWFP [= Northwest Frontier Province], Pakistan".

Duttaphrynus melanostictusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 365.

English Names

Doubtful Toad (Bufo dubia [no longer recognized]: Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 157; Gray, 1830, Illust. Indian Zool., Part 1: pl. 83).

Black-lipped Toad (Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 170).

Keeled-nosed Toad (Gray, 1830, Illust. Indian Zool., Part 1: pl. 83).

Indian Toad (Kelaart, 1853, Prodr. Faunae Zeylan., 1: 194).

Common Indian Toad (Daniel, 1963, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 60: 435; Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 16).

Asian Common Toad (Karsen, Lau, and Bogadek, 1986, Hong Kong Amph. Rept.: 18; Das, Jankowski, Makmor, and Haas, 2007, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 104: 147).

Asian Toad (Lim and Lim, 1992, Guide Amph. Rept. Singapore: 22).

Black-spined Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 42; Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 92).

Asian Toad (Iskandar, 1998, Amph. Java Bali: 49).

South Asian Garden Toad (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 40).

Asian Common Toad (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 40).

Common Indian Toad (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 40).

Black-spined Toad (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 40).

Black-lipped Toad (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 40).

Common Asian Toad (Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 63; Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 25).

Southeast Asian Broad-skulled Toad (Khan, 2001, Pakistan J. Zool., 33: 294).

Black-spectacled Toad (Fei and Ye, 2001, Color Handbook Amph. Sichuan: 152).

Reticulated Toad (Trade name).

House Toad (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 54).

Asiatic Toad (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 54).

Greenbelly Toad (Bufo chlorogaster [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41).

Maharashtra Stream Toad (Ansonia kamblei: Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 63).

Wrinkled-skin Toad (Bufo camortensis [no longer recognized]: Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 19).

Hazara Toad (Bufo melanostictus hazarensis: Khan, 2002, Bull. Chicago Herpetol. Soc., 37: 159).

Southeast Asian Toad (Bufo melanostictus melanostictus: Khan, 2002, Bull. Chicago Herpetol. Soc., 37: 159).

Common Sunda Toad (Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 17; Grismer, 2012, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Seribuat Arch.: 46).

Asian Eyebrow-ridge Toad (McKay, 2006, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Bali: 32).

Spectacled Toad (Lue, Tu, and Hsiang, 1999, Atlas Taiwan Amph. Rept.: 30).

Asian Black-spotted Toad (Menzies, 2006, Frogs New Guinea & Solomon Is.: 57).

Distribution

Southwestern and southern China (including Taiwan and Hainan) throughout southern Asia from northern Pakistan, Nepal, Sikkim, and Bangladesh through India to Sri Lanka, Andaman Is., Maldives, and Malaya, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Bali, up to 2000 m in some places; introduced onto Sulawesi, East Timor, Madagascar, and Papua New Guinea.

Comment

See Pope, 1931, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 61: 454; Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 172-175; Okada, 1931, Tailless Batr. Japan. Empire: 50-53; Liu, 1950, Fieldiana, Zool. Mem., 2: 203; and Taylor, 1962, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43: 332-335, and Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 172-175, for accounts and synonymies. See Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 70-74, for an account of the Bornean population. Berry, 1975, Amph. Fauna Peninsular Malaysia: 49, provided an account for Malaysian populations. Daniel, 1963, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 60: 435, provided a brief account for India. Khan, 2006, Amph. Rept. Pakistan: 43-44, provided a brief account for Pakistan. Sri Lankan population discussed by Kirtisinghe, 1957, Amph. Ceylon: 20-22; Dutta and Manamendra-Arachchi, 1996, Amph. Fauna Sri Lanka: 68-70; and Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda, 1998, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 3: 238. See Pope, 1931, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 61: 454-456, and Hu, Jiang, and Tian, 1984, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, Chengdu, N.S.,, 3 (1): 77-85, for discussion of Chinese population. See account by Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 186, and Yang, 1991, Amph. Fauna of Yunnan: 102-104. Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 140, suggested that nominal Duttaphrynus melanostictus (as Bufo) is a species complex. In the Bufo melanostictus group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 64, and Inger, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 107, and Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 133-180. See accounts by Iskandar, 1998, Amph. Java Bali: 47-48, and Lim and Lim, 1992, Guide Amph. Rept. Singapore: 122-23. Fei and Ye, 2001, Color Handbook Amph. Sichuan: 152, provided a brief account and illustration. Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 19-20, provided a brief account for Bufo camortensis, which he recognized without discussion, and (pp. 25-26) for Bufo melanostictus in India, and (p. 202) for Ansonia kamblei. Sarkar, Biswas, and Ray, 1992, State Fauna Ser., 3: 70-71, provided a brief accoun for West Bengal, India. See brief account and photo by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 33-34. Huang, 1990, Fauna Zhejiang, Amph. Rept.: 46-48, provided an account for Zhejiang populations. Ray, 1999, Mem. Zool. Surv. India, 18: 61-64, provided an account for northeastern India. Zhang and Wen, 2000, Amph. Guangxi: 58, provided an account for Guangxi. See also brief account by Zhao and Yang, 1997, Amph. Rept. Hengduan Mountains Region: 71-72. Anders, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 151-158, provided an extensive account for Nepalese population. See brief account by Shrestha, 2001, Herpetol. Nepal: 95. Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 54-55, provided a brief characterization. Lever, 2003, Naturalized Rept. Amph. World: 140, reported on introduced populations in Sulawesi, Papua New Guinea, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 92-93, provided a very brief account, map for Thailand, and photograph. Teynié, David, Ohler, and Luanglath, 2004, Hamadryad, 29: 35, commented on its distribution in Laos. Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 148, provided a photograph. Stuart, 2005, Herpetol. Rev., 36: 475, provided records for Laos. McKay, 2006, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Bali: 32-33, provided a brief account and photograph. Glaw and Rosado, 2006, Herpetol. Rev., 37: 502, provided records for Maldives. Lue, Tu, and Hsiang, 1999, Atlas Taiwan Amph. Rept.: 30-31, provided a brief account. Youmans and Wood, 2007, Herpetol. Rev., 38: 96, provided a record for West Malaysia. Menzies, 2006, Frogs New Guinea & Solomon Is.: 57-58, reported the species as introduced into Papua New Guinea and detailed its range there. Daniels, 2005, Amph. Peninsular India: 101-106, provided an account for South India. Yang, 2008, in Yang and Rao (ed.), Amph. Rept. Yunnan: 47-48, provided a brief account (as Bufo melanostictus) for Yunnan, China. Charles and Das, 2008, Herpetol. Rev., 39: 478, provided a record for Brunei. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 511-517, provided an account for China and a spot map. Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 25, provided a brief account, with photograph, for northeastern India. Mahony, Hasan, Kabir, Ahmed, and Hossain, 2009, Hamadryad, 34: 80-94, provided a record for Bangladesh. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 230-231, provided a brief account (as Bufo melanostictus) including photographs. de Silva, 2009, Amph. Rep. Sri Lanka Photograph. Guide: 64, provided a brief account for Sri Lanka and color photograph. Shi, 2011, Amph. Rept. Fauna Hainan: 43-45, provided an account for Hainan. Bopage, Wewelwala, Krvavac, Jovanovic, Safarek, and Pushpamal, 2011, Salamandra, 47: 173-177, reported the species in lowland forest in the Kanneliya Forest of southwestern Sri Lanka. Wanger, Motzke, Saleh, and Iskandar, 2011, Salamandra, 47: 17-29, reported the species from central Sulawesi, Indonesia. See Shah and Tiwari, 2004, Herpetofauna Nepal: 33, for brief account for Nepal. O'Shea, Sanchez, Heacox, Kathriner, Carvalho, Ribeiro, Soares, Araujo, and Kaiser, 2012, Asian Herpetol. Res., Ser. 2, 3: 114-126, reported an introduced population in East Timor. See brief account by Grismer, 2012, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Seribuat Arch.: 46-47, for the Seribuat Archipelago, West Malaysia.  Das, Chetia, Dutta, and Sengupta, 2013, Zootaxa, 3646: 336–348, compared this species with other Duttaphrynus from northeastern India. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 258–259, provided an account, photographs, and range map for China. Masroor, 2012, Contr. Herpetol. N. Pakistan: 43-45, provided an account for northern Pakistan and noted literature where this species had been confused with Duttaphrynus stomaticus, rendering erroneous distributional statements, particularly with respect to Sindh. Zhou, Qiu, Fang, Yang, Zhao, Fang, Zheng, and Liu, 2014, Zool. Res., Kunming, 35: 42–50, reported on call characteristics in China. Shahriza and Ibrahim, 2014, Check List, 10: 253–259, provided a photograph and brief natural history observations for a population in Kedah, West Malaysia. Reported from the Phi Phi Archipelago of peninsular Thailand by Milto, 2014, Russ. J. Herpetol., 21: 272. Wogan, Stuart, Iskandar, and McGuire, 2016, Biol. Lett., 12 (Art. 20150807): 1–5, reported on three genetically divergent populations, presumably distinct species, corresponding to the a) Asian mainland (not studied west of Myanmar) south to Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo; b) coastal Myanmar with an isolated record in Peninsular Malaysia; and c) Sumatra, Java, and Sulawesi. Subba, Aravind, and Ravikanth, 2016, Check List, 13(1: 2033): 1–14, provided records for Sikkim, India. Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 774–748777 provided an account, photograph, and dot map for China.  Vences, Brown, Lathrop, Rosa, Cameron, Crottini, Dolch, Edmonds, Freeman, Glaw, Grismer, Litvinchuk, Milne, Moore, Solofo, Noël, Nguyen, Ohler, Randrianantoandro, Raselimanana, van Leeuwen, Wogan, Ziegler, Andreone, and Murphy, 2017, Amphibia-Reptilia, 38: 197–207, identified through forensic molecular phylogenetics that southern Vietnam is the likely source of the introduced Madagascan population and disucssed the potential range in Madagascar. Pham, An, Herbst, Bonkowski, Ziegler, and Nguyen, 2017, Bonn Zool. Bull., 66: 37–53, provided records for Cao Bang Province, Vietnam, along with observatons on morphology and natural history.   

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