Bufotes viridis (Laurenti, 1768)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Bufotes > Species: Bufotes viridis

Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 27, 111. Type(s): Including frog figured on pl. 1, fig. 1 of original publication. Type locality: "inter fissuras, seu cavernas murorum obscuras Viennae", Austria.

Bufo schreberianus Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 27. Types: Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: "Saxonia prope Monasterium". Synonymy by Suckow, 1798, Anfang. Theoret. Angwewant. Naturgesch. Thiere, Amph.: 74 (with Rana variabilis); Latreille IN Sonnini de Manoncourt and Latreille, 1801 "An. X", Hist. Nat. Rept., 2: 116; Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 153; Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 79; Daudin, 1803 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Rept., 8: 156; Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 449; Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 682; Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 553; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 297.

Rana sitibunda Pallas, 1771, Reise Vers. Prov. Russ. Reich, 1: 458. Types: Not stated and location unknown if not lost. Type locality: "In desertis siccis ad Iaicum" (= in dry deserts at Jaico [= Yaik], Russia); restricted by Mertens and Wermuth, 1960, Amph. Rept. Europas: 48, to "Vorposten Tschanganskoi, Jaikische Steppen" ["outpost Tschanganskoi, Yaik (= Ural) steppes"]. Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 251, gave the type locality as "Chaganskoi Settlement, Ural (Yaik) River, southern Ural, Russia". Synonymy by Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 353; Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: 586; Daudin, 1803 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Rept., 8: 156; (with Rana variabilis) by Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 180, and Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 88; and Eichwald, 1842, Nouv. Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 7: 159; with Bufo viridis by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 682; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 58; Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 259, discussed relevance of this name to Asian taxa of their Bufo viridis subgroup.

Buffo viridisLacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 353, 460. Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: Table following page 618. Rejected as nonbinominal works by Opinion 2104, Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: 55.

Buffo viridi-radiatus Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 355, 460. Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: table following page 618 and referencing account on page 588. Substitute name for Bufo schreberianus Laurenti, 1768. Rejected as published in a nonbinominal work by Opinion 2104, Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: 55. Synonymy by Bonaparte, 1835, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 14): unnumbered; Fatio, 1872, Fauna Vert. Suisse, 3: 411.

Rana viridisLindaker, 1791, Neuere Abh. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., 1: 111.

Bufo viridisSchneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 200.

Bufo sitibundusSchneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 225.

Bufo cursor Daudin, 1803 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Rept., 8: 164. Types: Including specimen figured by Lepekhin, 1774, Tagebuch Reise Verschiedene Provinz. Russ. Reiches, 1: 318, pl. xxii, fig. 6; reprinted by Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 261. Type locality: "les steppes du Pérémiot près de l'Iaïk", Russia, specified to be near Guryev (47° 07′ N; 41° 56′E); "near Peremetnoe settlement, Uralsk province, Kazakhstan" according to Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 251. Synonymy with Bufo calamita by Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 141; Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 547; and Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 294, even though the range of Bufo calamita does not extend to the type locality; see Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 480. Considered a nomen dubium, most likely associated with Bufo viridis by Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 260-261.

Rana picta Pallas, 1814 "1831", Zoograph. Rosso-Asiat. Sist. Omn. Animal.: 9. Types: Not stated. Type locality: Catharinoslaw [now = Dnepropetrovsk City], Ukraine. Synonymy by Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 138 (under Bufo variabilis). Synonymy with Bufo viridis by Nikolskii, 1918, Fauna Rossii, Zemnovodnye: 99. Synonymy considered tentative by Dürigen, 1897, Deutschl. Amph. Rept.: 494, but see discussion by Kuzmin, 1996, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 1: 49.

Bufo schreberiOken, 1816, Lehrb. Naturgesch., 3(2): 208. Incorrect subsequent spelling. Unavailable name for nomenclatural purposes according to Opinion 417 (Anonymous, 1956, Opin. Declar. Internatl. Comm. Zool. Nomencl., 14: 1-42).

Bufo roseus Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 183. Types: Based on frog described by "Meyer, Thiere m. Skel., I. S. 35. t. 53". Type locality: "Germaniae aquis". Synonymy by Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 138 (under Bufo variabilis).

Bufo variabilis var. sitibundaEichwald, 1831, Zool. Special.: 167.

Bufo variabilis var. crucigera Eichwald, 1831, Zool. Special.: 167. Types: Not stated. Type locality: "in plateis Astrachani oppidi vespere circumsaltitans"; given as "Astrakhan City, Russia", by Kuzmin and Maslova, 2003, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 8: 255. Synonymy by Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 138 (under Bufo variabilis); Camerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 233.

Bufo pictusDvigubsky, 1832, Opyt Estestvennoi Istorii Gady: 35.

Bufo longipes Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 449. Types: Not stated. Type locality: "Dalmatia". Name coined in synonymy of Bufo viridis and alternatively as a possible variety of Bufo viridis, with the name attributed to Fitzinger, presumably on the basis of a jar label or manuscript name. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 228.

Bufo persicus Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 40. Name coined in synonymy of Bufo viridis and attributed to Fitzinger. Presumably based on specimens of Bufotes variabilis (DRF).

Bufo viridis var. lineata Ninni, 1879, Atti Ist. R. Venet. Sci. Lett., Ser. 5, 5: 973. Syntypes: "collezione zoologica del civico Museo di Venezia" (= MVEN 5 specimens, according to Novarini and Bonato, 2010, Acta Herpetol., Firenze, 5: 37-62). Type locality: "Venezia", Italy. Balletto, Bologna, and Giacoma, 2007, in Lanza et al. (eds.), Fauna d'Italia, 42 (Amph.): 296-305, considered this the available name for the taxon now called Bufotes balearicus. Stöck, Sicilia, Belfiore, Buckley, Lo-Brutto, Lo-Valvo, and Arculeo, 2008, BMC Evol. Biol., 8(56) 1-19; by implication, considered this name to be a junior synonym of Bufo viridis. Razzetti, 2008, in Corti (ed.), Herpetol. Sardiniae: 420-424, suggested that this name may ultimately be found to be a senior synonym of Bufo sicula Stöck, Sicilia, Belfiore, Buckley, Lo-Brutto, Lo-Valvo, and Arculeo, 2008, but that further resolution of the ranges of the two taxa is warranted. Unavailable name due to being coined as a infrasubspecific category according to Novarini and Bonato, 2010, Acta Herpetol., Firenze, 5: 37-62.

Bufo viridis var. crucigeraCamerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 233.

Bufo viridis var. concolor Camerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 234. Types: MZUT. Type locality: "Piemonte", Italy. Unavailable name due to being coined as a infrasubspecific category according to Novarini and Bonato, 2010, Acta Herpetol., Firenze, 5: 37-62.

Bufo viridis viridisMertens, 1926, Senckenb. Biol., 8: 258.

Bufo viridis var. raseusPavlov, 1933, Publ. Mus. Hoang Ho Pai Ho, Tien-Tsin, 23: 6. Presumably an incorrect subsequent spelling of Bufo roseus, but also ascribed incorrectly to "Camerans" (likely Camerano—DRF).

Pseudepidalea viridisFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 365.

Bufo lineataBalletto, Bologna, and Giacoma, 2007, in Lanza et al. (eds.), Fauna d'Italia, 42 (Amph.): 299. Incorrect gender of the species name.

Bufo (Pseudepidalea) viridis viridisRastegar-Pouyani, Kami, Rajabzadeh, and Shafiei, 2008, Iranian J. Anim. Biosyst., 4: 44.

Bufo lineatusSpeybroeck, Beukema, and Crochet, 2010, Zootaxa, 2492: 6-7.

Bufo (Bufotes) viridisDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 25. See comment under Bufotes record.

Bufotes viridisFrost, 2013, Amph. Spec. World, Vers. 5.6: . Required change because of non-monophyly of Bufo.

English Names

Thirsty Frog (Rana sitibunda [no longer recognized]: Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 115).

Brown Toad (Bufo fuscus [no longer recognized]: Lacépède, 1802, Nat. Hist. Ovip. Quadruped. (Kerr transl.): 301).

Green Toad (Lacépède, 1802, Nat. Hist. Ovip. Quadruped. (Kerr transl.): 296; Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 153; Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 168; Gadow, 1901, Amphibia and Reptiles: 180; Hellmich, 1962, Rept. Amph. Eur.: 64; Arnold and Burton, 1978, Field Guide Rept. Amph. Brit. Eur.: 74; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 46; Roth, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 122; Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 251; Tarkhnishvili and Gokhelashvili, 1999, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 4: v; Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 76).

European Green Toad (Cochran, 1961, Living Amph. World: 76; Minton, 1966, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 134: 53; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 44).

Changeable Toad (Hellmich, 1962, Rept. Amph. Eur.: 64).

Distribution

Northeastern borderlands of France, western Germany, and northern Italy east and south to Greece (including Crete) and through Europe through Russia to Kazakhstan.

Comment

A diploid species in the Bufo viridis group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 63, and Inger, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 107. For discussion and definition of the Bufo viridis complex and Bufo viridis subgroup see Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 254, and Stöck, Moritz, Hickerson, Frynta, Dujsebayeva, Eremchenko, Macey, Papenfuss, and Wake, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 41: 663-689. Stöck, Frynta, Grosse, Steinlein, and Schmid, 2001, Asiat. Herpetol. Res., 9: 81, noted that Bufo viridis sensu stricto is a diploid taxon. Balletto, Borkin, Castellano, Dujsebayeva, Eremchenko, Giacoma, Lattes, and Odierna, 2000, Riv. Idrobiol., 38: 199-220, reviewed the literature of the Bufo viridis complex and provided a discussion of phylogenetics. Lanza, 1983, Guide Reconoscimento Spec. Animali, Anf. Rett.: 107-110, reported on the Italian populations. Nöllert and Nöllert, 1992, Die Amph. Eur.: 297301, provided an account and polygon map for Europe. Extinct in Switzerland, although being reintroduced (D. Hofer, personal commun.). Pikulik, 1996, Zemnavodnyia Pauzuny: 115-118, provided an account for the Belarus population. See comment under Bufotes variabilis. See account of the Italian population by Balletto, Bologna, and Giacoma, 2007, in Lanza et al. (eds.), Fauna d'Italia, 42 (Amph.): 299-304, who regarded the widespread population in peninsular Italy to be a species disintct from Bufotes viridis, which they regarded as Bufotes lineatus (as Bufo lineata). Korky, 2004, Bull. Maryland Herpetol. Soc., 40: 161-174, reported on larval variation in Poland. Stojanov, Tzankov, and Naumov, 2011, Die Amph. Rept. Bulgariens: 189-196, provided a fairly detailed account and range map for Bulgaria. Cogǎlniceanu, Székely, Samoilă, Iosif, Tudor, Plăiaşu, Stănescu, and Rozylowicz, 2013, ZooKeys, 296: 35-57, provided a dot map for Romania. 

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