Bufotes variabilis (Pallas, 1769)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Bufotes > Species: Bufotes variabilis

Rana variabilis Pallas, 1769, Spicilegia Zool., Fasc. 7: 1, pl. 6, figs. 1, 2. Types: Including frogs "in Edleri Museo" as well as frog figured in tab. 6, figs. 3 and 4, according to the original; if type material is lost, noted as the frog illustrated from Lübeck according to Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 259. Type locality: "Lubecae" = Lübeck, Germany. Stated by Pallas, 1777, Naturgesch. Merkwuerd. Thiere, 7 [Pallas' own German translation of Pallas, 1769, Spicilegia Zool., Fasc. 7], to have been originally coined as a synonym of Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1789, although there is no mention of Laurenti's work in the original description.

Rana bufina Müller, 1776, Zool. Danica Prodr. Animal. Dan. Norveg.: 35. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "Daniae et Norvegia". Synonymy with Bufo viridis by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 682; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 58. Placed in this synonymy on the basis of geography (DRF).

Bufo bufinaBonnaterre, 1789, Tab. Encyclop. Method. Trois Reg. Nat., Erp.: 17.

Batrachus fuscusRafinesque, 1814, Specchio Sci., 2, 2: 102.

Bufo fuscus Oken, 1816, Lehrb. Naturgesch., 3(2): 208, who placed it in the synonymy of Bufo variabilis and attributed it in error to Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., Ed. 13, 1(3): XXX. . Unavailable name for nomenclatural purposes according to Opinion 417 (Anonymous, 1956, Opin. Declar. Internatl. Comm. Zool. Nomencl., 14: 1-42).

Bufo bufoninaOken, 1816, Lehrb. Naturgesch., 3(2): 208. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Bufo variabilisMerrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 180. Leunis, 1844, Synops. Drei Naturr., Zool., Ed. 1: 147.

Phrynoidis variabilisCope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 353, who erroneously ascribed the combination to &lt. Bufo viridis Laurenti.

Bufo viridis kermanensis Eiselt and Schmidtler, 1971, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 75: 383. Holotype: NHMW 19647.1, by original designation. Type locality: "Kerman-Stadt, Prov. Kerman, Iran". A diploid form; see karyotype of topotypes in Stöck, Frynta, Grosse, Steinlein, and Schmid, 2001, Asiat. Herpetol. Res., 9: 83. See also Borkin, Rosanov, and Litvinchuk, 2001 "2000", Russ. J. Herpetol., 7: 175, and Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 295, who provided an nomenclatural discussion.

Bufo kavirensis Andrén and Nilson, 1979, J. Herpetol., 13: 93. Holotype: NHMG Ba.ex 1276, by original designation; reported as 1278 by Stöck, Frynta, Grosse, Steinlein, and Schmid, 2001, Asiat. Herpetol. Res., 9: 79. Type locality: "Cheshmeh-ye Sefied Ab (34° 21′ N, 52° 14′ E), situated about 10 km southwest of Kuh-e Ghal'e-ye Sard mountains and about 30 km south of Siah Kuh mountains in the southern part of the Kavir Protected Region about 200 km south of Teheran, Iran". Synonymy with Bufo viridis kermanensis by Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 300.

Bufo viridis kavirensisStöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 301.

Bufo variabilis kermanensisStöck, Moritz, Hickerson, Frynta, Dujsebayeva, Eremchenko, Macey, Papenfuss, and Wake, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 41: 667.

Pseudepidalea variabilisFrost, 2007, Amph. Spec. World, vers. 5.0

365, and &lt.

Bufo (Pseudepidalea) viridis kermanensisRastegar-Pouyani, Kami, Rajabzadeh, and Shafiei, 2008, Iranian J. Anim. Biosyst., 4: 44. Presumably based on misidentifications.

Bufo (Bufotes) variabilisDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 25. See comment under Bufotes record.

Bufo (Bufotes) variabilis variabilisDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 25. See comment under Bufotes record.

Bufo (Bufotes) variabilis kermanensisDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 25. See comment under Bufotes record.

Bufotes variabilisFrost, 2013, Amph. Spec. World, Vers. 5.6. Required change because of non-monophyly of Bufo.

Bufotes variabilis variabilisFrost, 2013, Amph. Spec. World, Vers. 5.6. Required change because of non-monophyly of Bufo.

Bufotes variabilis kermanensisFrost, 2013, Amph. Spec. World, Vers. 5.6. Required change because of non-monophyly of Bufo.

English Names

Varying Toad (Rana variabilis: Lacépède, 1802, Nat. Hist. Ovip. Quadruped. (Kerr transl.): 298; Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 153).

Variable Toad (Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 167; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 46).

Variable Green Toad (Arekelyan, Danielyan, Corti, Sindaco, and Leviton, 2012, Herpetofauna of Armenia: 40).

Teheran Toad (Bufo kavirensis [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 42).

Kerman Variable Toad (Bufotes variabilis kermanensisSafaei-Mahroo, Ghaffari, Fahimi, Broomand, Yazdanian, Najafi-Majd, Hosseinian Yousefkani, Rezazadeh, Hosseinzadeh, Nasrabadi, Rajabizadeh, Mashayekhi, Motesharei, Naderi, and Kazemi, 2015, Asian Herpetol. Res., 6: 266. 

Distribution

Greece, Cyprus, and east through Turkey to Syria and Lebanon (and possibly south through Israel and Jordan through western Saudi Arabia to Yemen, although these populations are currently questionably assigned to this species), thence east through Iraq to Iran, and north-northwest through the Caucasus through Russia to Kazakhstan; isolated population in Denmark, adjacent northern Germany and southern Sweden.

Comment

Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 259, discussed and rejected previous applications of this name to different Asian taxa of their Bufo viridis subgroup. Stöck, Moritz, Hickerson, Frynta, Dujsebayeva, Eremchenko, Macey, Papenfuss, and Wake, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 41: 663-689, removed the name from the synonymy of Bufo viridis where it had been placed by Bonnaterre, 1789, Tab. Encyclop. Method. Trois Reg. Nat., Erp.: 12 (with Rana schreberianus), by Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 153; Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 79; Daudin, 1803 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Rept., 8: 156; Oken, 1816, Lehrb. Naturgesch., 3(2): 208; Wiegmann, 1832, in Wiegmann and Ruthe (eds.), Handbuch der Zool., Amph.: 202; Eichwald, 1842, Nouv. Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 7: 159 (under Bufo variabilis); Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 58; Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880:553; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 197. Tosunoglu and Tok, 1997, Turkish J. Zool., 21: 205-211, reported on morphological and osteological variation among southwestern Turkey and northeastern Greece; and Tosunoglu, 1999, Turkish J. Zool., 23: 849-871, reported on morphological, osteological, and serological variation within Turkey (as Bufo viridis). Tosunoglu, 1996, Turkish J. Zool., 20: 103-111, reported on morphometric and serological variation among populations in western and southern Anatolia and also considered the populations in southern Anatolia to be referrable to Bufo viridis arabicus (although this name seems to be properly restricted to populations in southern Arabia). Başoğlu and Özeti, 1973, Türkiye Amphibileri: 89-90, provided an account for the Turkish populations (as Bufo viridis). Disi, Modry, Necas, and Rifai, 2001, Amph. Rept. Hashemite Kingdom Jordan: 93-95, provided an account (as Bufo viridis; but likely of this species) for Jordan, with images. Özeti and Yilmaz, 1994, Türkiye Amfibileri: 131-134, provided an account (as Bufo viridis) for Turkish populations. Gislén and Kauri, 1959, Acta Vert., Stockholm, 1: 289-295, reported on Swedish populations (as Bufo viridis). Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco, and Venchi, 2002, Zool. Middle East, 27: 36, provided definitive records (as Bufo viridis) for Lebanon. Baloutch and Kami, 1995, Amph. Iran: 122-123, 124-135 (as Bufo viridis kermanensis), and 140-144 (as Bufo kavirensis) provided an account for Iran. Özdemir and Kutrup, 2007, Herpetozoa, Wien, 20: 3-10, regarded this species (the bulk of their Turkey samples) as conspecific with Bufotes viridis (their Izmir, Turkey, and Ukraine samples) although their results are consistent with a two-species model; for purposes of this catalogue the species are retained but the data presented suggest that the situation between Bufotes variabilis and Bufotes viridis is not clear. Speybroeck, Beukema, and Crochet, 2010, Zootaxa, 2492: 7, rejected recognition of this taxon from "Bufo" viridis pending publication of evidence beyond mtDNA. Arekelyan, Danielyan, Corti, Sindaco, and Leviton, 2012, Herpetofauna of Armenia: 40-42, provided a brief account for Armenia and environs. Fakharzaeh, Darvish, Kami, Ghasemzadeh, and Rastegar-Pouyani, 2014, Asian Herpetol. Res., 5: 168–178, reported on karyology of the Bufotes viridis complex in the southern part of Iran, showing karyotypic differences between Bufotes luristanicus, Bufotes surdus, and Bufotes variabilis. Portik and Papenfuss, 2015, BMC Evol. Biol., 15 (152): 11, suggested that the Arabian populations of the Bufotes variabilis complex deserved additional study to refine their species identity. Safaei-Mahroo, Ghaffari, Fahimi, Broomand, Yazdanian, Najafi-Majd, Hosseinian Yousefkani, Rezazadeh, Hosseinzadeh, Nasrabadi, Rajabizadeh, Mashayekhi, Motesharei, Naderi, and Kazemi, 2015, Asian Herpetol. Res., 6: 257–290, reported on distribution and conservation status in Iran. 

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