Bufotes surdus (Boulenger, 1891)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Bufotes > Species: Bufotes surdus

Bufo surdus Boulenger, 1891, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 6, 7: 282. Holotype: "purchased"; BMNH 1947.2.21.20 (formerly 90.12.17.1), according to R.F. Inger IN Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 61. Type locality: "Baluchistan", Pakistan. See Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 264, for brief discussion of type (pictured) and type locality.

Bufo viridis var. persica Nikolskii, 1899, Annu. Mus. Zool. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, 4: 406. Syntypes: ZISP 2056-59; ZISP 2058.3 designated lectotype by Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 265. Type localities: "Urbs Bazman", "Flum. Tamin in Sargardo", "Duz-Ab in Kirmano orient.", "Ziaret in Sargado" [translated], Iran. Restricted to Duz-Ab in E-Kirmano, about 28° N, 58° E, by lectotype designation. Primary homonym of "Bufo persicus Fitz." IN Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 40 (a nomen dubium according to Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 265). Synonymy by Zarevskij, 1926 "1925", Annu. Mus. Zool. Acad. Sci. Leningrad, 26: 78; Schmidtler and Schmidtler, 1969, Salamandra, 5; and Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 265.

Bufo persicusNikolskii, 1903, Annu. Mus. Zool. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, 8: 97.

Bufo surdus surdusSchmidtler and Schmidtler, 1969, Salamandra, 5: 118. Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 269.

Bufo surdus annulatus Schmidtler and Schmidtler, 1969, Salamandra, 5: 118. Holotype: ZSM 4/1968, by original designation. Type locality: "5 km nördlich Mehkuh, 1400 m ü. M. (70 km südlich Schiras), auf dem nördlichen Fahrtweg zur Strasse Schiras—Firuzabad", Prov. Fars, Iran. Distinctiveness from Bufo surdus surdus doubted by Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 269.

Pseudepidalea surdaFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 365.

Bufo (Pseudepidalea) surda surdaRastegar-Pouyani, Kami, Rajabzadeh, and Shafiei, 2008, Iranian J. Anim. Biosyst., 4: 44.

Bufo (Pseudepidalea) surda annulataRastegar-Pouyani, Kami, Rajabzadeh, and Shafiei, 2008, Iranian J. Anim. Biosyst., 4: 44.

Bufo (Bufotes) surdusDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 25. See comment under Bufotes record.

Bufo (Bufotes) surdus annulatusDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 25. See comment under Bufotes record.

Bufo (Bufotes) surdus surdusDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 25. See comment under Bufotes record.

Bufotes surdusFrost, 2013, Amph. Spec. World, Vers. 5.6: . Required change because of non-monophyly of Bufo.

Bufotes surdus annulatusFrost, 2013, Amph. Spec. World, Vers. 5.6: . Required change because of non-monophyly of Bufo.

Bufotes surdus surdusFrost, 2013, Amph. Spec. World, Vers. 5.6: . Required change because of non-monophyly of Bufo.

English Names

Pakistan Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43).

Luristan Toad (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 41).

Iranian Toad (Khan, 2002, Bull. Chicago Herpetol. Soc., 37: 159).

Iranian Earless Toad (Safaei-Mahroo, Ghaffari, Fahimi, Broomand, Yazdanian, Najafi-Majd, Hosseinian Yousefkani, Rezazadeh, Hosseinzadeh, Nasrabadi, Rajabizadeh, Mashayekhi, Motesharei, Naderi, and Kazemi, 2015, Asian Herpetol. Res., 6: 263). 

Ring-spotted Earless Toad (Bufotes surdus annulatusSafaei-Mahroo, Ghaffari, Fahimi, Broomand, Yazdanian, Najafi-Majd, Hosseinian Yousefkani, Rezazadeh, Hosseinzadeh, Nasrabadi, Rajabizadeh, Mashayekhi, Motesharei, Naderi, and Kazemi, 2015, Asian Herpetol. Res., 6: 262). 

Distribution

Mountains of southern Iran (Sistan Va Baluchistan, Kerman, Hormozgan, Fars, and Bushehre provinces), adjacent Iraq, and western Pakistan (western Baluchistan and vicinity of Quetta).

Comment

In the Bufo viridis group of Inger, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 107, and in the Bufo surdus subgroup of Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 262. See Schmidtler and Schmidtler, 1969, Salamandra, 5: 113-123, and Eiselt and Schmidtler, 1973, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 77: 188, for taxonomy, distribution, and ecology. Stöck, Frynta, Grosse, Steinlein, and Schmid, 2001, Asiat. Herpetol. Res., 9: 83, noted that two Bufo viridis complex toads occur in the Zagros Mountains, one being referable to Bufo surdus luristanicus (now Bufotes luristanicus) and the other to Bufo viridis subspecies (previously called Bufo viridis arabicus) and noted that the ploidy level of the three nominal subspecies of Bufo surdus are unknown. Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 267-269, provided a brief taxonomic account. Baloutch and Kami, 1995, Amph. Iran: 135-137, provided an account (as Bufo surdus) for Iran. Khan, 2006, Amph. Rept. Pakistan: 50-51, provided a brief account for Pakistan. Javari and Torki, 2009, Herpetozoa, Wien, 21: 171-178, suggested on the basis of morphology that Bufotes luristanicus (as Bufo) is a subspecies of Bufotes surdus, but noted that molecular evidence suggested species distinctiveness. Fakharzaeh, Darvish, Kami, Ghasemzadeh, and Rastegar-Pouyani, 2014, Asian Herpetol. Res., 5: 168–178, reported on karyology of the Bufotes viridis complex in the southern part of Iran, showing karyotypic differences between Bufotes luristanicus, Bufotes surdus, and Bufotes variabilisSafaei-Mahroo, Ghaffari, Fahimi, Broomand, Yazdanian, Najafi-Majd, Hosseinian Yousefkani, Rezazadeh, Hosseinzadeh, Nasrabadi, Rajabizadeh, Mashayekhi, Motesharei, Naderi, and Kazemi, 2015, Asian Herpetol. Res., 6: 257–290, reported on distribution and conservation status in Iran. 

External links:

Please note: these links will take you to external websites not affiliated with the American Museum of Natural History. We are not responsible for their content.