Atelopus varius (Lichtenstein and Martens, 1856)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Atelopus > Species: Atelopus varius

Atelopus varius Stannius, 1856, Handb. Zootomie Wiebelthiere, 2: 16. Nomen nudum.

Phrynidium varium Lichtenstein and Martens, 1856, Nomencl. Rept. Amph. Mus. Zool. Berol.: 40. Syntypes: Not designated; according to museum records: ZMB 3377 (2 specimens) and 3378 (2 specimens) and 3379; ZMB 3377 designated neotype by Savage, 1972, Herpetologica, 28: 84, but this number applies to two specimens, according to Lötters, 1996, Neotrop. Toad Genus Atelopus: 53. Female of ZMB3377 (subsequently 3377.1) designated lectotype by Lötters, Böhme, and Günther, 1998, Mitt. Mus. Naturkd. Berlin, Zool., 74: 176. Type locality: "Veragoa"; discussed by Savage, 1972, Herpetologica, 28: 89. Restricted to "the Pacific portion of the Provincia Veraguas, western Panamá" by Lötters, Böhme, and Günther, 1998, Mitt. Mus. Naturkd. Berlin, Zool., 74: 176.

Phrynidium varium var. adspersum Lichtenstein and Martens, 1856, Nomencl. Rept. Amph. Mus. Zool. Berol.: 41. Syntypes: ZMB 3377-78 (4 specimens); ZMB 3377 designated lectotype by Savage, 1972, Herpetologica, 28: 83; but this number applies to two specimens, according to Lötters, 1996, Neotrop. Toad Genus Atelopus: 53. Female of ZMB 3377 (subsequent. 3377.1) designated lectotype by Lötters, Böhme, and Günther, 1998, Mitt. Mus. Naturkd. Berlin, Zool., 74: 176. Type locality: "Veragoa" = Veragua, Panama; discussed by Savage, 1972, Herpetologica, 28: 89. Synonymy by Dunn, 1931, Occas. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 5: 394, and Taylor, 1952, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 35: 624.

Phrynidium varium var. maculatum Lichtenstein and Martens, 1856, Nomencl. Rept. Amph. Mus. Zool. Berol.: 40. Holotype: ZMB 3379, according to Savage, 1972, Herpetologica, 28: 83. Type locality: "Veragoa" = Veragua, Panama; discussed by Savage, 1972, Herpetologica, 28: 89. Restricted to "the western portion of the Provincia Chiriquí, western Panamá" by Lötters, Böhme, and Günther, 1998, Mitt. Mus. Naturkd. Berlin, Zool., 74: 176. Synonymy by Dunn, 1931, Occas. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 5: 397, and Lötters, Böhme, and Günther, 1998, Mitt. Mus. Naturkd. Berlin, Zool., 74: 176.

Hylaemorphus bibronii Schmidt, 1857, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 24: 14. Holotype: KM 1015/1355, according to Savage, 1970, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 38: 273-288. Type locality: "Neu-Granada"; later restricted by Schmidt, 1858, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 14: 256, to "Neu-Granada, unweit Panama, zwischen 2000′ und 3000′ [Polish feet, therefore = 460-760 m, according to Savage, 1970, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 38: 273-288]". Synonymy by Cochran and Goin, 1970, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 288: 137. See comment by Lötters, 1996, Neotrop. Toad Genus Atelopus: 53, about type locality and status.

Hylaemorphus dumerilii Schmidt, 1857, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 24: 14. Holotype: KM 1014/1355, according to Savage, 1970, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 38: 273-288. Type locality: "Neu-Granada", later restricted by Schmidt, 1858, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 14: 256, to "Neu-Granada, Provinz Veragua, in Höhe bis gegen 8000′". Synonymy by Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 137; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 152.

Hylaemorphus plutonius Jan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 53. Type(s): MSNM. Type locality: "Brasile" (presumably in error). Nomen nudum attributed to Fitzinger and Tschudi, presumably on the basis of label names. Presumed to be in this synonymy on the basis of similarity of name with Hylaemorphus pluto Schmidt, 1858 (DRF).

Hylaemorphus pluto Schmidt, 1858, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 14: 255. Syntypes: NHMW 3875.1-4 (4 specimens), according to Savage, 1972, Herpetologica, 28: 83. Type locality: "Costa Rica". Restricted to "Cartago, Cantón Cartago, Provincia Cartago, Costa Rica" by Savage, 1974, Rev. Biol. Tropical, 22: 84, who also commented on the type locality. Synonymy by Taylor, 1952, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 35: 624.

Phryniscus bibroniiGünther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 155.

Phryniscus variusGünther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 45.

Phrynidium bibroniiCope, 1867, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 196.

Atelopus variusKeferstein, 1867, Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen, 18: 350. Boulenger, 1894, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 6, 14: 374-375.

Atelopus varius var. maculatusPeters, 1873, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1873: 618.

Phryniscus dumeriliiBrocchi, 1882, Miss. Scient. Mex. Amer. Centr., Rech. Zool., 3(2, livr. 2): 96.

Phryniscus variusBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 152.

Atelopus bibroniiBoulenger, 1894, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 6, 14: 374-375. Rivero, 1963, Caribb. J. Sci., 3: 108.

Atelopus varius variusDunn, 1931, Occas. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 5: 393-397.

Atelopus varius maculatusDunn, 1931, Occas. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 5: 397.

Atelopus varius loomisi Taylor, 1952, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 35: 625. Holotype: KU 24746, by original designation. Type locality: "Isla Bonita (American Cinchona plantation), approximately 5000 ft. elevation, eastern slope Volcán Poás, [Cantón de Alajuela, Provincia de Alajuela,] Costa Rica". Type locality commented on by Savage, 1974, Rev. Biol. Tropical, 22: 79.

Atelopus varius ambulatorius Taylor, 1952, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 35: 628. Holotype: R.C. Taylor 766, by original designation; now FMNH 178270 according to Marx, 1976, Fieldiana, Zool., 69: 44. Type locality: "Isla Bonita (American Cinchona Plantation), southeastern slope Volcán Poás, elevation approximately 6000 ft.", Cantón de Alajuela, Provincia de Alajuela, Costa Rica. Type locality commented on by Savage, 1974, Rev. Biol. Tropical, 22: 80.

Atelopus loomisiTaylor, 1955, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 37: 517. Taxonomic change without discussion.

Atelopus varius bibroniCochran and Goin, 1970, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 288: 137.

English Names

Harlequin Frog (Savage, 1972, Herpetologica, 28: 77-94).

Clown Frog (Trade name).

Painted Frog (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 36).

Veragoa Stubfoot Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 40).

Distribution

Premontane and lower montane zones on both Atlantic and Pacific versants of the cordilleras of Costa Rica and western Panama (see comment).

Comment

In the Atelopus ignescens group of Lynch, 1993, Alytes, 11: 77–87. See account by Savage, 1972, Herpetologica, 28: 77–94. Cocroft, McDiarmid, Jaslow, and Ruiz-Carranza, 1990, Copeia, 1990: 638, suggested that Atelopus varius was a species complex, with at least the Panamanian records represented more than one species. Similarly, Lötters, 1996, Neotrop. Toad Genus Atelopus: 53, suggested that Colombian (source of these is Cochran and Goin, 1970, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 288: 118–145, a notorious source of misidentifications and taxonomic misallocations) and eastern Panamanian records are based on misidentifications. See Lötters, Böhme, and Günther, 1998, Mitt. Mus. Naturkd. Berlin, Zool., 74: 173v184, for discussion of nomenclatural history. See account by Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 189–190, who restricted the distribution to Costa Rica and Panama. Richards and Knowles, 2007, Mol. Ecol., 16: 3119–3133, suggested that at least their samples of Atelopus varius from Costa Rica were more closely related to Atelopus senex than they were to Panamanian Atelopus varius. See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 177. Velásquez-Álvarez and Kahn, 2005, in Rueda-Almonacid et al. (eds.), Ranas Arlequines: 115, provided a brief account, photograph, and map. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 98–102, compared this to the other species of Central America and provided a map and photograph. Perez, Richards-Zawacki, Krohn, Robak, Griffith, Ross, Gratwicke, Ibáñez D., and Voyles, 2014, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 8: 30–35, reported on populations in western Panama persisting where chytrid fungus is present. Estupiñán, Ferrari, Gonçalves, Barbosa, Vallinoto, and Schneider, 2016, ZooKeys, 637: 89–106, suggested on the basis of COI barcodes that cryptic species are likely.  

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