Anaxyrus hemiophrys (Cope, 1886)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Anaxyrus > Species: Anaxyrus hemiophrys

Bufo hemiophrys Cope, 1886, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 23: 515. Syntypes: USNM 11927 (6 specimens), by original designation; USNM 11927 (6 specimens) and MCZ 3728. Cope mentioned only 6 specimens in his type series but Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 34, noted 7, of which 1 had been exchanged to the MCZ. Type locality: "northern boundary of Montana", USA; corrected to "Pembina, Pembina County, North Dakota", USA, by Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 34; Stejneger and Barbour, 1917, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept.: 28, reported "Pembina and Turtle Mts., North Dakota", USA, and Barbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69: 232, gave "Pembina and Turtle Mts., N. Dakota, U.S.A." for the MCZ syntypes; see comment above. Restricted to "Turtle Mountains", North Dakota, USA by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 67. This restriction regarded as invalid by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 304, for reason of not being based on disclosed evidence. 

Bufo woodhousei hemiophrysSchmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 67.

Bufo hemiophrysBlair, 1957, Texas J. Sci., 9: 99.

Bufo hemiophrys hemiophrysPorter, 1968, Evolution, 22: 593, by implication.

Bufo americanus hemiophrysCook, 1983, Publ. Nat. Sci. Natl. Mus. Canada, 3: 1. 

Anaxyrus hemiophrysFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 363.

Bufo (Anaxyrus) hemiophrys — Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 304. See comment under Bufonidae regarding how this arrangement is part of a a system that requires widespread paraphyly. 

English Names

Canadian Toad (Wright and Wright, 1933, Handb. Frogs Toads U.S. Canada: x; Stebbins, 1951, Amph. W. North Am.: 263; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 309; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 42; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 7; Stebbins, 2003, Field Guide W. Rept. Amph., Ed. 3: 216; Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2008, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 37: 3; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 6; Frost, McDiarmid, Mendelson, and Green, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 13; Frost, Lemmon, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 8).

Dakota Toad (Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 67; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 176; Stebbins, 1966, Field Guide W. North Am. Rept. Amph.: 64; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 10; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 11).

Distribution

Eastern South Dakota and western Minnesota (USA) to western Ontario, eastern Alberta, and extreme southern Northwest Territories (Canada).

Comment

In the Bufo americanus group according to Blair, 1957, Texas J. Sci., 9: 108, and Blair, 1959, Texas J. Sci., 11: 427. See Bufo baxteri. Green, 1983, Herpetologica, 39: 28–40, studied a hybrid zone with Bufo americanus in Manitoba, Canada. Green and Pustowka, 1997, Herpetologica, 53: 218–228, discussed this hybrid zone and taxonomic implications. See comment under Anayxrus fowleri. Stebbins, 2003, Field Guide W. Rept. Amph., Ed. 3: 216–217, provided a brief account, figure, and map. Ewert and Lannoo, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 412–415, provided a detailed account, map, and conservation status. Fontenot, Makowsky, and Chippindale, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 59: 66–80, discussed hybridization with eastern members of the Anaxyrus americanus group. Dodd, 2013, Frogs U.S. and Canada, 1: 113–120, provided an account that summarized relevant literature. Elliot, Gerhardt, and Davidson, 2009, Frogs and Toads of N. Am.: 156–157, provided an account, photos, and advertisement call. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 181, provided an account of larval morphology and biology.    

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