Brachycephalus ephippium (Spix, 1824)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Superfamily: Brachycephaloidea > Family: Brachycephalidae > Genus: Brachycephalus > Species: Brachycephalus ephippium

Bufo ephippium Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 48. Type(s): Not designated although including animal figured on pl. 20, fig. 2; ZSM 1021/0 considered holotype by Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 374 (lectotype designation by implication) and Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 158. Type locality: "Provincia Bahiae"; given as "provávelmente região de Ilhéus", Bahia, Brazil, according to Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 39. This doubted by Pombal, 2001, Amphibia-Reptilia, 22: 179-185, and Pombal and Gasparini, 2006, S. Am. J. Herpetol., 1: 87-93, and Napoli, Caramaschi, Cruz, and Dias, 2011, Zootaxa, 2739: 39, who suggested the specimens actually came from the mountains in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

Brachycephalus ephippiumFitzinger, 1826, Neue Class. Rept.: 65.

Ephippipher spixii Cocteau, 1835, Mag. Zool., Guérin, 5: 12. Types: ZSM ("museo Monachii") according to original publication. This specimen being ZSM 10021/0 according to Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 158. Type locality: "Brasiliae in provincia Bahiae" = Province of Bahia, Brazil. Provisional synonymy by Cocteau, 1835, Mag. Zool., Guérin, 5: 12. Synonymy by Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 87; Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 729; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 45; Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 35; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 156; Cochran, 1955 "1954", Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 206: 5-7. Considered a replacement name for Bufo ephippium Spix by Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 374.

Ephippipher aurantiacus Cocteau, 1835, Mag. Zool., Guérin, 5: 12. Types: MNHNP according to original publication, though not mentioned in subsequent type lists or the current online collection database (22 Aug 2009) so therefore presumed lost. Type locality: Province of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Synonymy by Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 87; Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 729; Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 35; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 156; Cochran, 1955 "1954", Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 206: 5-7.

Brachycephalus aurantiacusGirard, 1858, U.S. Explor. Exped. 1838–1842, 20: 100.

English Names

Spix's Saddleback Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 38).

Pumpkin Toadlet (Pombal, 1999, Rev. Brasil. Zool., 16: 967).

Distribution

Montane regions of southeastern Brazil (states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Minas Gerais).

Comment

See Cochran, 1955 "1954", Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 206: 5-7, and Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 374, for synonymy. Izecksohn and Carvalho-e-Silva, 2001, Anf. Municipio Rio de Janeiro: 27, provided a brief account and photo. Dayrell, Oliveira, Cassini, and Feio, 2006, Herpetol. Rev., 37: 357, provided the record for Minas Gerais. Clemente-Carvalho, Montero, Bonato, Rocha, Pereira, Oliveira, Lopes, Haddad, Martins, and Reis, 2008, J. Herpetol., 42: 176-185, reported on cranial geographic variation. Synonymy of the varieties of Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920, Rev. Mus. Paulista, São Paulo, 12: 313-314, by Cochran, 1955 "1954", Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 206: 5-7, was regarded as premature by R.W. McDiarmid IN Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 24). Clemente-Carvalho, Alves, Perez, Haddad, and Reis, 2011, J. Herpetol., 45: 94-99, reported on molecular and morphological variation that suggests that the Macae´ de Cima, Rio de Janeiro, population is a different species than the population found in the state of São Paulo.

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