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Museum abbreviations

The following museum abbreviations were drawn originally from Leviton et al. (1980, Museum acronyms. Second edition, Herpetol. Rev., 11: 93-102, and as partially augmented and corrected (corrections in catalogue not yet completed) by Sabaj Pérez, M.H., editor. 2010. Standard symbolic codes for institutional resource collections in herpetology and ichthyology: an online reference, vers. 2.0 [8 Nov. 2010. accessible at http://www.asih.org/node/204], ASIH). Where known, mailing addresses have been included to facilitate communication with curators.

AAG-UFU: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Municipality of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. 

AIM: Auckland War Memorial Museum [formerly Auckland Institute and Museum, name formally changed to Auckland War Memorial Museum in 1996], Private Bag, Auckland; AIM retained for consistency.

AL-MNRJ: Adolpho Lutz collection in MNRJ.

AMG: Albany Museum, Grahamstown, South Africa. Collection transferred to the PEM in 1993.

AMNH: American Museum of Natural History, Division of Vertebrate Zoology (Herpetology), 79th Street and Central Park West, New York, New York 10024, USA.

AMS: Australian Museum, Department of Herpetology, 6-8 College Street, Sydney, New South Wales 2000, Australia.

ANSP: Academy of Natural Sciences, Department of Herpetology, 19th and the Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103, USA.

ASU: School of Life Sciences, Herpetology Collection, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1501, USA.

AZM: Australian Zoological Museum, Katoomba, New South Wales, Australia (personal collection of Richard Wells according to Iverson et al., 2001, J. Herpetol. 35: 361-368, who suggested that the specimens are not available for examination).

BJC: Bijie [Teacher's] College, Bijie, 551700 Guizhou, P. R. China.

BMNH: The Natural History Museum, Department of Zoology, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom. (Formerly the British Museum [Natural History].)

BNHM: Bombay Natural History Museum, Hornbill House, Shahid Bhagat Singh Road, Bombay 400 023, India.

BORNEENSIS: Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation, University of Malaysia—Sabah.

BPBM: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Department of Zoology, 1355 Kalihi Street, Honolulu, Hawaii 96818, USA.

BSPHM: Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Paläontologie und historische Geologie, München, Germany. (Includes the former G. Brunner collection.) [BSPG in ASIH list]

BYU: Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602, USA.

CARE: Albert R. Estrada Collection, Habana, Cuba.

CAS-SU: Stanford University collection in CAS.

CAS: California Academy of Sciences, Department of Herpetology, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, California 94118, USA.

CBF:  Colección Boliviana de Fauna, Herpetología, Calle 26, Cota-Cota, La Paz, Bolivia.

CCB: Central College, Faculty of Science, Bangalore University, Bangalore, India.

CENAI: Centro Nacional de Iologia, Buenos Aires, Argentina; now in MACN.

CET: Centro de Estudios Tropicales, Sevilla, Spain.

CFBH: Celio  F.B. Haddad Collection; to be deposited in the Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus de Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brazil.

CHAS: Chicago Academy of Sciences, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

CHINM: Instituto Nacional de Microbiología, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Transferred to MACN.

CHM: Charleston Museum, 121 Rutledge Avenue, Charleston, South Carolina 29401, USA. 

CHUNB: Coleção Herpetológica da Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, D.F., Brazil.

CIB: Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 416, Chengdu, 610041 Sichuan, P.R. China.

CJ: Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios, Quito, Ecuador

CM: Carnegie Museum, Department of Herpetology, 4400 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA.

CNHM: Chongqing Natural History Museum, Chongqing, P.R. China.  

CPS: University of Puget Sound, Slater Museum of Natural History, 1500 N. Warner Street, Tacoma, Washington 98416, USA.

CRE: Costa Rica Expeditions, now accessioned into LACM. CU: Cornell University, Division of Biological Sciences, Ithaca, NewYork 14853, USA.

CUZM: Chulalongkorn University, Zoological Museum, 254 Phyathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok, Thailand. 10330.

CVULA: Coleccion Vertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias, La Hechicera, Universidad de los Andes, Mérida 5101, Venezuela. Formerly UALM.

CZACC: Colección Zoologia, Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, Habana, Cuba. [IZAC in ASIH list]

DBCUCH: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Biología Celular y Genética, Casilla 6556, Santiago 7, Chile.

DBSNNU: Department of Biology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, 710062 Shaanxi, P.R. China. [SNUIZ in ASIH list]

DCN-UNRC: Departamento de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Argentina.

DFCH-USFQ: Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia Collection, College of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Casilla Postal 17-12-841, Quito, Ecuador.

DHMECN: División de Herpetología, Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales, Quito, Ecuador.

DMNH: Delaware Museum of Natural History, PO Box 3937, Greenville, Delaware 19807, USA. [ASIH has DMNH as the Dallas Museum of Natural History]

DZSJRP: División de Herpetología, Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales, Quito, Ecuador.

EBD: Estación Biológica de Doñana, Sevilla, Spain.

EBRG: Museo de la Estación Biología de Rancho Grande, Maracay, Aragua, Venezuela.

EBUAP: Laboratorio de Herpetología, Escuela de Biología, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570. Puebla, México.

EHT-HMS: Edward H. Taylor–Hobart M. Smith collection. Now partitioned among FMNH and UIMNH.

EHT: Edward H. Taylor Collection. Now dispersed among CAS, FMNH, and UIMNH.

EI: Eugenio Izecksohn Collection, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Biologia Animal, 23460 Seropédica, Itaguai, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

EPN-H: Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Colección Herpetología, Apartado 25759, Quito, Ecuador.

ERA-WTN: E. Ross Allen–Wilfred T. Neill collection. Now in FSM.

EWU: Ewha Women's University Natural History Museum, 11-1 Daehyun-Dong, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul, 120-750 Korea.

FAS: Frederick A. Shannon Collection; now accessioned into UIMNH (although some Grand Canyon specimens retained in UAZ collection).

FHGO: Fundación Herpetológica Gustavo Orcés. Av. Amazonas 3008 y calle Rumipamba, Casilla Postal 17-033-448, Quito, Ecuador.

FML: Fundación Miguel Lillo, Miguel Lillo 205, Tucumán 4000, Argentina.

FMNH: Field Museum, Division of Amphibians and Reptiles, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605, USA.

FPC: Floyd Potter Collection. Location currently unknown. [Eurycea pterophila]

FSM: Florida State Museum, University of Florida, Museum Road, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA.

FU: Fudan University, Department of Biology, Shanghai, 200433 Guangdong, P.R. China.

FUE: Fukuoka University of Education, Munakata, Fukuoka, Japan.

GIN: Geological Institution of the Russian Federation. Moscow, Russia.

GMXU: Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 530021 Guangxi, P.R. China.

GSMNP: Great Smoky Mountains National Park [Plethodon oconoluftee]

GXMESGXUA: Guangxi Maoershan National Reserve collection, Guilin 541300, Guangxi, P.R. China.

GXMU: Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 530021 Guangxi, P.R. China.

GXNHM: Guanxi Natural History Museum, Nanning, 530012 Guangxi, P. R. China.

GXNU: Guangxi Normal University, Guilin, 541004 Guangxi, P.R. China.

HAINNU: Department of Biology, Hainan Normal University, Haikou City, 571158 Hainan Province, P.R. China.

HENNU: College of Life, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, P.R. China.

HLD: Hessisches Landesmuseum, Darmstadt, Germany.

HLMD: Hessisches Landesmuseum Darmstadt, Germany.

HNNU: Department of Biology, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081 Hunan, P.R. China.

HNNUL: College of Life Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, Hunan, P.R. China. 

HTC: Hangzhou Teachers College (also known in English as Hangzhou Normal University), Hangzhou, 310036 Zhegjiang, P.R. China.

HU: Hangzhou University. Note: in 1998 Hangzhou University,Zhengjiang University, Zhejiang Agricultural University, Zhejiang Medical University were officially combined into Zhejiang University, Hangzhou,  Zhejiang, P. R. China.

HUJ: Hebrew University, Department of Zoology, Jerusalem, Israel.

IABHU : Institute for Amphibian Biology, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima 739-8526, Japan

IASST: Museum. Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Paschim Boragaon, Guwahati -781035 Assam, India.

IAVH: Instituto de Ivestigación de los Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, Villa de Leiva, Boyacá, Colombia. (Formerly IND-AN)

IBAUNC: Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Instituto de Biología Animal, Centro Universitario, Parque General San Martín, 5500 Mendoza, Argentina. (formerly IBMUNC)

IBUNAM: Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. 04510, Mexico.

ICN: Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Museo de Historia Natural, Apartado 7495, Bogotá, Colombia.

IFAN: Instituto Fondamental d’Afrique Noire, B.P. 206, Université de Dakar, Dakar, Senegal.

IND-AN: Amphibian Collection, Instituto Nacional de los Recursos Naturales Renovables y del Ambiente, Bogotá, Colombia. (now IAvH)

INHS: Illinois Natural History Survey, 607 East Peabody Drive, Champaign, Illinois 61820, USA. (Now maintains UIMNH collections.)

INPA: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, Brazil.

IOC: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, C.P. 926, Avenida Brasil, Manguinhos, 20.000 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

IPG: Institut Pasteur de Guyane, Cayenne, French Guiana. 

IRSNB: Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, 29 Rue Vautier, 1000 Bruxelles, Belgium. (Formerly MRHN, Museum Royal d'Histoire Naturelle, Belgium.)

IZ: Instituto de Zoología, Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, Habana. Now in CZACC.

IZUA: Universidad Austral de Chile, Instituto de Zoología, Valdivia, Chile. Amphibian collection destroyed by fire on 3 December 2007.

IZUC: Universidad de Concepción, Instituto de Zoología, Concepción, Chile.

IZUG: Istituto di Zoologia dell’Università, Via Balbi 5, 16126 Genova, Italy.

IZUW: Institut für Zoologie der Universität Wien, Wien, Austria.

JJ: Jorge Jim Private Collection, Deparatmento de Zoologia, IBBMA–UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.

JLA: Jean-Luc Amiet Collection; now in MHNG.

KIZ: Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650223 Yunnan, 650223, P.R. China.

KM: Muzeum Przyrodnicze Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego, ul. Krupnicza 50, Kraków, Poland.

KU: University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History, Division of Herpetology, Lawrence, Kansas 66045, USA.

KUHE: Kyoto University, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto 606, Japan.

KUM: Kyushu University Museum Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

LACM: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Section of Herpetology, 900 Exposition Boulevard, Los Angeles, California 90007, USA.

Lanza Collection: Personal collection of Benedetto Lanza.

LCFM: Musée d’Histoire Naturelle, 2300 La-Chaux-de-Fond, Switzerland.

LE-UBIPRO: Julio A. Lemos-Espinal field series in the collection of Unidad de Biología, Tecnología y Prototipos, Facultad de Estudio Superiores Iztacala, Tlalnepantla, México, Mexico.

Leverian Museum: Collection now widely dispersed and types not now known to exist.

LIHUBA: Universidad de Buenos Aires, Laboratorio de Investigaciones Herpetológicas, now in MACN.

LIU: M. Liu personal collection [Rana huanranensis]

LIV: Liverpool Museum, William Brown Street, Liverpool L3 8EN, United Kingdom.

LSUMZ: Louisiana State University, Museum of Natural Science, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70893, USA.

LSUS: Louisiana State University, Shreveport.

LTHC: Liupanshui Normal (formerly Teachers Higher) College, Department of Biology, Liupanshui City, 553004 Guizhou, China.

LZUH: Laboratoire de Zoologie, Université de Hanoi, Vietnam.

MACN: Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Sección Herpetología, Avenida Angel Gallardo 470, 1405 Buenos Aires, Argentina.

MAD: Museo Arqueologica de Deya. Mallorca, Spain.

MAP: Musée d'Anthropologie Prehistorique. Monte Carlo, Monaco.

MBL: Museu Bocage, Universidade de Lisboa, Rua da Escola Politécnica, Lisboa 2, Portugal. Collection destroyed by fire on 18 March 1978.

MBML: Museu de Biologia Mello Leitão, 29.650 Santa Teresa, Espiritu Santo, Brazil.

MBUCV: Universidad Central de Venezuela, Museo de Biología, Apartado 59058, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas, Venezuela.

MCN: Museu de Ciências Naturais, Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

MCNAM: Museu de Ciências Naturais, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

MCNG: Museo de Ciencias Naturales. Guanare, Portuguesa 3310, Venezuela. 

MCP: Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

MCP: Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Museu de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Avenida Ipiranga 6681, Caixa Postale 1429, 90000 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul.

MCVR: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Lung, Porta Vittoria No. 9, I-37129 Verona, Italy.

MCZ: Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.

MCZMI: Department of Zoology, Modern College, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

MD: Museu Regional do Dundo, C.P. 54, Dundo, Chitato, Luanda-Norte, Angola.

MDUG: Universidad de Guanajuato, Museo “Alfredo Dugès”, Guanajuato, Mexico.

MGAB: Muzeul de Istorie Naturala “Grigore Antipa”, Soseaua Kisseleff1, Sectorul 1, 79744 Bucharest 63, Romania.

MGP: Museo di Geologia e Paleontologia. Pisa, Italy.

MHNC: Museo de Historia Natural de Cochabamba, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

MHNCI: Museu de Historia Natural Capao da Imbuia, Rua Prof. Benedito Conceicao 407, 82810-080 Curitiba, Parana, Brazil.

MHNCP: Departamento de Herpetología del Museo de Historia Natural del Cusco, Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco, Plaza de Armas del Cusco s/n, Cusco, Peru

MHNCSJ: Museo de Historia Natural, Colegio San José, Medellín, Colombia.

MHNG: Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Route de Malagnou, C.P. 284, 1211 Geneva 6, Switzerland.

MHNJP: Museo de Historia Natural “Javier Prado”; now MHNSM.

MHNLS: Museo de Historia Natural La Salle, Caracas, Venezuela. Formerly SCN.

MHNM: Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo, Enc. Herpetología, Casilla de Correo 399, Montevideo, Uruguay.

MHNN: Museé d'Histoire Naturelle de Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

MHUA-A: Museo de Herpetología, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia. 

MK: National Museum of Kenya, P.O. Box 40658, Nairobi, Kenya.

MLP: Museo La Plata, Collection Herpetología, Paseo del Bosque, 1900 La Plata, Argentina.

MLS: Museo del Instituto de La Salle, Apartado Aéreo 27389, Calle 11, No. 1–69, Bogotá, Colombia.

MLU: Martin-Luther-Universität, Zoologisches Institut, Domplatz 4, 4020 Halle, Germany.

MM: Magdeburg Museum, Magdeburg, Germany.

MMK: McGregor Museum, P.O. Box 316, Kimberley 8300, Northern Cape Province, South Africa.

MMUS: University of Sydney, Macleay Museum, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia.

MNCN: Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, José Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain.

MNH: Musei Nacionalis Hungarici (Természettudományi Múzeum), Baross u. 13 24, P.O.B. 37, 1088 Budapest, Hungary.

MNHHWU: Museum of Natural History Wroclaw University, Sienkiewicza str. 21, PL-50-335 Wroclaw Poland. (formerly Breslau Museum?)

MNHNC: Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Chile, Casilla 787, Santiago, Chile.

MNHNCU: Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Havana, Cuba.

MNHNP: Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Laboratoire des Amphibiens et Reptiles, 25 Rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris, France.

MNHNPA: Colección Herpetológica del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay. Asunción, Paraguay.

MNHSC: Museum of Natural History and Science, 1301 Western Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45203-1130, USA. (formerly CSNM, Cincinnati Society of Natural History.)

MNK: Museo de Historia Natural "Noel Kempff Mercado", Avenida Irala 565, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia.

MNKNU: Museum of Nature of the Kharkiv National University, 8 Trinkler St., Kharkiv,  61022 Ukraine. Formerly SZKU.

MNM: Muzium Negara Malaysia/National Museum of Malaysia, Jalan Damansara, 50566 Kuala Lumpur (formerly the Selangor Museum).

MNMH: Museum of North Manchuria. Harbin, China.

MNRJ: Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro, Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Quinta da Boa Vista, s/no., 20.942 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

MONZ: Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, Wellington, New Zealand.

MPEG: Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Caixa Postal 3999, 66.040 Belém, Brazil.

MRAC: Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Steenweg op Leuven, 1980 Tervuren, Belgium.

MRGS: Museu do Rio Grande do Sul, C.P. 1188, 90.000 Pôrto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

MRHN: Now IRSNB.

MRSN: Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Via Giovanni Giolitti 36, 10123, Torino, Italy. 

MSNG: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova "Giacomo Doria", Via Brigata Liguria 9, 16121 Genova, Italy.

MSNM: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, Corso Venezia 55, 20121 Milano, Italy.

MSU: The Museum, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1045, USA.

MTD: Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden(formerly MTKD: Staatliche Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden, Museum für Tierkunde), Königsbrücker Landstrasse 159, 01109 Dresden, Germany.

MTSN: Museu Tridentino di Scienze Naturali, Trento, Italy.

MU: Midwestern [now State] University, Wichita Falls, Texas.

MUJ: Lorenzo Uribe Museum of Natural History, Pontificia Universidad Javierana, Bogotá, Colombia.

MUP: Universidade do Pôrto, Museu do Historia Natural, Pôrto, Portugal.

Musee Hoang-Ho Pai-Ho: Musee Hoang-Ho Pai-Ho. Now Tianjin Natural History Museum. Tianjin, Hebei, China.

MUSM: Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Avenida Arenas 11434, Lima, Peru (formerly MHNSM; formerly MHNJP: Museo de Historia Natural "Javier Prado".

MZUB: Museo di Zoologia, Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

MZUC: Museo de Zoología, Universidad de Concepción, Chile. (same as IZUC?) Telmatobius fronteriensis Eupsophus contulmoensis

MZUEFS: Coleção Herpetologica do Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santa, Campus Universitário, Avenida Universitária, 44031-060 Feira de Santa, Bahia, Brazil.

MZUF: Università di Firenze, Museo Zoologico "La Specola", Via Romana 17, 50125 Firenze, Italy.

MZUSP: Universidade de São Paulo, Museu de Zoologia, Avenida Nazareth 481, C.P. 7172, 01000 São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

MZUT: Museo di Zoologia. Instituto di Zoologia e Anatomia Comparata Universitá di Torino, Via Giolitti 34, 10123, Torino Italy. Now housed with MRSN.

MZUTI: Museo de Zoología, Universidad Tecnológica Indoamérica, Quito, Ecuador.

MZV: Instytut Zoologii, ul. Wilcza 64, 00679 Warsaw, Poland.

National Center for Reference Collection of Thailand; now moved to the Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, Techno Thani, Pathum Thani Province, Thailand.

NHM: Naturhistorisches Museum, Bernastrasse 15, 3005 Bern, Switzerland.

NHMB: Naturhistorisches Museum, Augustinergasse 2, 4001 Basel, Switzerland.

NHMG: Naturhistoriska Museet, Box 11049, Slottskogen, 40030 Göteborg, Sweden.

NHMT: National Science Museum of Thailand

NHMW: Naturhistorisches Museum, Zoologische Abtheilung, Postfach 417, Burgring 7, 1014 Wien, Austria.

NHRM: Naturhistoriska Rijkmuseet, Section for Vertebrate Zoology, Roslagsvägen 120, Box 50007, 104 05 Stockholm 50, Sweden.

NIEA: Northwestern Institution of Endangered Animals. [Batrachuperus taipaiensis]

NMB: National Museum. Bloemfontein, Rep. South Africa.

NMC: Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Canada.

NMK: National Museums of Kenya, Museum Hillis, Box 40658, 00100, Nairobi, Kenya. NMNHI: National Museum of Natural History, New Delhi, India.

NMNS: National Museum of Natural Science, Taiwan.

NMNZ: National Museum of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand (formerly  Dominion Museum)

NMP: Natal Museum, Loop Street, Pietermaritzburg 3201, Natal, South Africa.

NMP6V: Department of Zoology, National Museum, Prague, Czech Republic.

NMSL: Sri Lanka National Museum, PO Box 854, Colombo 07, Sri Lanka.

NMV: National Museum of Victoria, 285–321 Russell Street, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia.

NMZB: National Museum of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box 240, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

NMZL: National Museum of Zambia, Livingstone, Zambia.

NTM: Northern Territory Museum), Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. (Now MAGNT:  Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory, Darwin, Australia.)

NTNUB: National Taiwan Normal University, Department of Biology, 162 East Ho Ping Road, Sec. 1, Taipei, Taiwan 117, China.

NTUMA: National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Road IV, Taipei, Taiwan 107, China.

NWIPB: Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Science, Xining, 810008 Qinghai, P.R. China.

NWIPB: Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Xining, 810008 Qinghai, P.R. China.

NWUX: Department of Biology, Northwestern University, Xian, 710069 Shaanxi, P. R. China.

NYSM: New York State Museum, Cultural Education Center, Empire State Plaza, Albany, New York 12230, USA.

NZMS: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, National Zoological Museum, Ruski 1, Sophia, Bulgaria.

OMNH: Osaka Museum of Natural History, Nagai Park, Higashi-sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 546, Japan.

OMNH-N: The Sam Noble Oklahoma State Museum of Natural History, 2401 Chautauqua Avenue, Norman, Oklahoma 73072, USA.

OSUS: Oklahoma State University, Department of Zoology, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074, USA.

OUM: Oxford University Museum, Parks Road, Oxford, United Kingdom.

PEM: Port Elizabeth Museum, Port Elizabeth, Republic of South Africa.

PM: Philadelphia Museum: defunct in 1856, collections then transferred to P.T. Barnum's "American Museum" (not AMNH) (collections destroyed by fire in 1865) and "Boston Society of Natural History";, the herpetology collection going to the MCZ in 1914.

PNM: Philippine National Museum, Manila, Philippines.

PSO-CZ: Universidad de Nariño, Pasto, Colombia.

QCAZ: Museo de Zoología, Pontifica Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Apartado 17-01-2184, Quito, Ecuador.

QM: Queensland Museum, Gregory Terrace, Fortitude Valley, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia.

QVM: Queen Victoria Museum, Wellington Street, Launceston, Tasmania 7250, Australia.

RDB: R. Donoso-Barros Collection; now in IZUC.

RGMC: now MRAC.

RM: Raffles Museum. Now ZRC.

RMNH:  Naturalis (Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum; formerly Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie), Postbus 9517, 2300RA Leiden, The Netherlands.

RMNHB: Regional Museum of Natural History, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India.

ROM: Royal Ontario Museum, Department of Herpetology, 100 Queens Park, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2C6, Canada.

SAM: South African Museum, P.O. Box 61, Cape Town 8000, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

SAMA: South Australia Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia.

SBC: Sarawak Biodiversity Centre Zoological Museum, Semenggoh, Sarawak, Malaysia.

SCUM: Zoological Museum of the School of Life Science, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

SDNHM: San Diego Natural History Museum, Department of Herpetology, PO Box 1390, San Diego, CA 92112, USA.

SFI: State Forest Research Institute, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

SIU: Southern Illinois University, Herpetology Collection, Department of Zoology, Illinois 62901, USA.

SM: Strecker Museum, Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798, USA.

SMF: Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg, Senckenberg-Anlage 25, 6000 Frankfurt-am-Main 1, Germany.

SMK: Sarawak Museum, Jl. Tun Hj. Openg, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia.

SMM: Sabah Museum, Locked Bag 2015, 88566 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

SMNS: Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Schloss Rosenstein, 7000 Stuttgart 1, Germany.

SMW: State Museum, Windhoek, Namibia.

SPCS: Sergio P. Carvalho e Silva, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundão, 21910 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

SPM: Sabah Parks, PO Box 10626 88806, Kota Kinabalu, Sabaha, Malaysia. [Leptolalax arayai; Ansonia anotis]

STC: Sichuan Teachers College, Nanchong, 637002 Sichuan, P.R. China.

SU: Stanford University, now in CAS.

SYNU: Shenyang Normal University, Shengyang, 110034 Liaoning, P. R. China.

SZE: Zoology Department, Aegean University, Science Faculty, Biology Division, Bornova-Izmir, Turkey.

SZKU:  See MNKNU.

TCWC: Texas Cooperative Wildlife Collection, Department of Wildlife Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA.

THNHM: National Science Museum, Thailand Natural History Museum, Technopolois, Klong 5, Klong Luang, Patumthani 12120, Thailand. (Presumably now includes the former National Center for Reference Collections of Thailand.)

TIU: University of Tokyo [formerly Tokyo Imperial University], Science College Museum, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Formerly Tokyo Imperial University. 

TMAG: Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, GPO Box 1164, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia.

TMP: Ditsong  National Museum of Natural History (formerly Transvaal Museum), P.O. Box 413, Pretoria 0001, Transvaal, South Africa.

TNHC: Texas Memorial Museum, Texas Natural History Collection, 24th and Trinity, Austin, Texas 78705, USA.

TNHM: Trivandrum Natural History Museum. Trivandrum, Kerala, India. 

TNHMP: Tianjin Natural History Museum. Tianjin, 300074, China. (Formerly Musee Hoang-Ho Pai-Ho.)

TOYA: Toyama Science Museum, Toyama 939, Niigata University, Niigata 950–21, Japan.

TTU: Texas Tech University, Museum, Box 43191, Lubbock, TX 79409-3191, USA.

TU: Tulane University, Museum of Natural History, F. Edward Hebert Research Center, Belle Chasse, LA 70037, USA.

TZM: National Science Museum [= Kokuritsu Kagaku Hakabutsukan], Hyakunin-cho, 3-23-1, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160, Japan.

UADBA: Université d'Antananarivo, Département de Biologie Animale, Atntananarivo, Madagascar.

UAZ: Amphibian and Reptile Collection, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson 85720, Arizona, USA.

UCM: University of Colorado Museum, Herpetology Collection, Campus Box 315, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA.

UCR: Coleccion de Herpetología, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

UFBA: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA, Brazil

UFC: Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.

UG-CSBD: University of Guyana, Center for the Study of Biological Diversity, Georgetown, Guyana.

UIMNH: University of Illinois, Museum of Natural History, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. (Now maintained at by INHS.)

UKMHC (formerly HC): Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Herpetological Collection, Bangi, Malaysia.

ULABG: Universidad de los Andes, Departamento de Geografia, Mérida, Venezuela.

ULBF: Univ. Ljubljana, Slovenia, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology.

UM:  Umtali Museum; now NMZB.

UMB: übersee Museum Bremen, Bahnhofsplatz 13,
D-28195 Bremen, Germany.

UMKL: University of Malaya, Zoology Department, Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur 22–11, Malaysia.

UMMP: University of Michigan Museum of Paleontology, 1109 Geddes Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1079.

UMMZ: University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104, USA.

UMZ: University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge University, Cambridge, Department of Zoology, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EJ, UK.

UNIMAS: Institute of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia.

UNIRIO: Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia, Av. Brigadeiro Trompowsky, s/no. CCS.Bl. A. Ilha do Fundão, CEP 21941-590, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. 

UNNEC: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Corrientes, Argentina.

UP: University of Papua and New Guinea, Biology Department, University P.O. Box 4820, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.

UPRM: Universidad de Puerto Rico, Departamento de Biología, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico 00708, USA.

UPRP: Universidad de Puerto Rico, Departamento de Biología, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico 00931, USA.

URP: Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Ricardo Palma, Av. Benavides cdra. 54, Santiago de Surco, Lima, Peru.

USM: Biological Sciences Program, School of Distance of Eucation, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USNM, Penang, Malaysia.

USNM: National Museum of Natural History, Division of Amphibians and Reptiles, Washington, D.C. 20560, USA.

UTA: University of Texas at Arlington, Department of Biological Sciences, UTA Box 19489, Arlington, Texas 76019, USA.

UTEP: University of Texas at El Paso, Centennial Museum, 500 West University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968-0519, USA.

UU: University of Utah, Department of Biology, 1400 E. 2nd South Street, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA.

UVC: Museo de Vertebrados, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

UWZM: Zoology Museum, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

UZMO: Universitetet i Oslo, Zoologisk Museum, Sarsgaten 1, Oslo 5, Norway.

WAM: Western Australia Museum, Francis Street, Perth, Western Australia 6000, Australia.

WCAB: Werner C. A. Bokermann collection, now transferred to MZUSP.

WED: William E. Duellman field series.

WHT: Wildlife Heritage Trust, 95 Cotta Road, Colombo 8, Sri Lanka.

XNC: Department of Biology, Xinxiang Normal College, Xinxiang, 453003 Henan, P.R. China.

YPM: Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, 170 Whitney Avenue, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.

YT:  Dept Life Sciences and Technology, Yantai Normal UniversityCollege, Yantai, 264025 Shandong, P.R. China. 

YU: Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 Yunnan, P.R. China.

ZDEU: Zoology Department, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey.

ZFMK: Zoologisches Forschungsinstitut und Museum Alexander Koenig, Herpetologische Abteilung, Adenauerallee 150-164, 5300 Bonn-1, Germany.

ZIAU: Zoological Institute of Antananarivo University; now UACBA.

ZIHU: Hiroshima University, Zoological Institute, 1-1-89 Higashi-senda-machi, Naka-ku, Hiroshima 30, Japan.

ZIK: Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Zoological Institute, 252.150 Kiev: 30, Ukraine.

ZISP: Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 199034, Russia. (Formerly ZIL, Zoological Institute, Leningrad, USSR Academy of Sciences, Leningrad.)

ZIUG: Zoologisches Institut, Universität Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany. Transferred to ZFMK in 1977.

ZIUS: Universitetes Stockholm, Zoologiska Institutionen, Box 6801, 113 86 Stockholm, Sweden.

ZIUU: Uppsala Universitet, Zoologiska Museum, Villvägen 9, Box 561, 75 122 Uppsala, Sweden.

ZIUW: Universität Wien, Zoologisches Institut, Dr.-Karl-Lueger-Ring 1, 1010 Wien, Austria.

ZIUZ: Sveuciliste u Zagrebu (University of Zagreb) Zoological Institute, P. O. Box 815, Trg Marsala Tita 14, 41000 Zagreb, Croatia.

ZMA: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Zoologisch Museum, Plantage Middenlaan 53, Amsterdam: C, Netherlands.

ZMB: Universität Humboldt, Zoologisches Museum, Invalidenstrasse 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany.

ZMBH: Zemaljski Muzej Bosne i Hercegovine (= National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina), Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

ZMC: Zunyi Medical College, 563003 Guizhou, P. R. China.  [Pseudohynobius kuankuoshuiensis]

ZMG: Zoologischen Museums Greifswald. Griefswald, Germany.

ZMH: Zoologisches Museum für Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King Platz 5, 2000 Hamburg 13, Germany.

ZMK: Zoological Musem, Kristiania (now Oslo), Norway.

ZMLU: Lunds Universitet, Zoologiska Institutionen, Helgonavägen 3, 223 62 Lund, Sweden.

ZMM: M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Zoological Museum, Ul. Herzena 6, 103009 Moscow K-9, Russia.

ZMNH: Zhejiang Museum of Natural History, Hangzhou, 310014 Zhejiang, P.R. China.

ZMUC: Universitets København, Zoologisk Museum, Universitetsparken 15, 2100 København, Denmark.

ZMZ: Zoologisches Museum, Universitat Zurich, Kinstergasse 16, jCH-8006 Zurich Switzerland

ZRC: Zoological Reference Collection, Department of Zoology, University of Singapore, Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 10. Formerly National Museum and formerly Raffles Museum.

ZSI-E: Zoological Survey of India, Eastern Regional Station, Fruit Garden, Risa Colony, Shillong - 793003, Meghalaya, India.

ZSI-M: Zoological Survey of India, Mylapore, Madras, India. Now ZSI-SRS.

ZSI-NRS: Zoological Survey of India, Northern Regional Station, 218 Kaulagarh Road, Post IPE, Dehra Dunn, Uttar Pradesh 248195 India.

ZSI-S: Now ZSI-E.

ZSI-SRS: Zoological Survey of India, Southern Regional Station, 100, Santhome High Road, Chennai,Tamil Nadu 600028  India.

ZSI-WGFRS: Western Ghats Field Research Station, Zoological Survey of India, Kamala Building (1 Floor), Annie Hall Road, Calicut, Kerala,673002  India.

ZSI-WRS: Zoological Survey of India, Western Regional Station, Vidyanagar, Sector 29, Opposite Akurdi Railway Station, Akurdi, Pune, Maharashtra 411038 India.

ZSIC: Zoological Survey of India, Herpetology Section, Fire-Proof Spirit Building, 27 JL Nehru Road, Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), 700 016, India. Formerly Indian Museum.

ZSM: Zoologische Staatssammlung München, Münchhausenstraße 21, 81247 München, Germany.

ZUEC: Museu de História Natural, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13081-970 Campinas, S.P, Brazil.

ZUFRJ: Departamento de Zoolgia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68044, 21944-970 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

ZVCB: Collección de Zoología Vertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la República, Iguá 4225, CP 11400, Montevideo, Uruguay.