Salamandrina terdigitata (Bonnaterre, 1789)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Salamandridae > Subfamily: Salamandrininae > Genus: Salamandrina > Species: Salamandrina terdigitata

Salamandra ter-digitata Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: Table following page 618 and referencing account starting on page 496. Type(s): Not stated, although including animals figure on plate facing page 496 of 4to edition; holotype is MNHNP 4658 according to Thireau, 1986, Cat. Types Urodeles Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., Rev. Crit.: 76. Type locality: "Vésuve" = Vesuvius, Italy. Synonymy (with Sieranota perspicillata) by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 25, and Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 69. Work (and all contained names) suppressed as nonbinominal by Opinion 2104, Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: 55.).

Salamandra Ter-digitata Bonnaterre, 1789, Tab. Encyclop. Method. Trois Reg. Nat., Erp.: 64. Type(s): as for Salamandra ter-digitata Lacépède, 1788. Type locality: as for Salamandra ter-digitata Lacépède, 1788.

Salamandra tridactyla Daudin, 1803 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Rept., 8: 261. Type(s): Not designated; MNHNP 4658 is holotype according to Thireau, 1986, Cat. Types Urodeles Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., Rev. Crit.: 77 (who regards this as a substitute name for Salamandra ter-digitata Lacépède). Type locality: "Vésuve" (= Vesuvius), Italy. Synonymy (with Seiranota perspicillata) by Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 450; Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 25. Synonymy (with Salamandrina perspicillata) by Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 63, and Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 69; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 28.

Molge tridactylaMerrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 188.

Triton tridactylusSchinz, 1822, Thierr. Naturgesch., 2: 186.

Salamandra imperati Costa, 1828, Fauna Aspromonte: 78. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: Fiume Ferraina, Aspromonte, southern Italy. Synonymy by Brame, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 80.

Salamandrina terdigitataDunn, 1918, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62: 450. Mertens and Müller, 1940, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 451: 13.

English Names

Spectacle Salamander (Hellmich, 1962, Rept. Amph. Eur.: 53).

Spectacled Salamander (Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 39; Bruno, 1973, Natura, Milano, 64: 289; Arnold and Burton, 1978, Field Guide Rept. Amph. Brit. Eur.: 35; Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 33; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 62; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 36).


Italy in the Apennines southeast of Naples to the tip of Calabria, Italy; reported also in central Apulia on the Basilicata border of Italy.


See accounts (in the sense of also including what is now Salamandrina perspicillata) by Bruno, 1973, Natura, Milano, 64: 289-299, Nöllert and Nöllert, 1992, Die Amph. Eur.: 185-188, and Thorn and Raffaëlli, 2000, Salamand. Ancien Monde: 239-244. See also discussion of relevant literature and distribution by Vanni and Nistri, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 70-71. Zuffi, 1999, in Grossenbacher and Thiesmeier (eds.), Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., 4(1): 229-246, provided an extensive review of biology. Obst IN Engelmann, Fritzsche, Günther, and Obst, 1993, Lurche Kriechtiere Eur.: 83-85, provided a brief account, figure, and map. See comment under Salamandrina perspicillata. Work (and all contained names) suppressed as nonbinominal by Opinion 2104 (Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: XXX). Mattoccia, Romano, and Sbordoni, 2005, Zootaxa, 995: 1-19. Raffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 150-151, provided a brief account, figure, and map. See detailed account by Angelini, Vanni, and Vignoli, 2007, in Lanza et al. (eds.), Fauna d'Italia, 42 (Amph.): 228-237. Romano, Mattoccia, Marta, Bogaerts, Pasmans, and Sbordoni, 2009, Ital. J. Zool., 76: 422-432, distinguished the species from Salamandrina perspicillata. Speybroeck, Beukema, and Crochet, 2010, Zootaxa, 2492: 5, discussed the literature surrounding the distinctiveness of the two species. Liuzzi, Mastropasqua, and Salvi, 2011, Acta Herpetol., Firenze, 6: 315-321, discussed the range of the species and provided a record for Apulia, Italy. Hauswaldt, Angelini, Gehara, Benavides, Polok, and Steinfartz, 2014, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 70: 1-12, reported on molecular phylogeography. 

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