Salamandra salamandra (Linnaeus, 1758)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Salamandridae > Subfamily: Salamandrinae > Genus: Salamandra > Species: Salamandra salamandra

Lacerta salamandra Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 204. Type(s): Including ZIUU (1 specimen) according to Lönnberg, 1896, Bih. K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 22: 10, as well as animals figured by "Matth. Diosc. 274. f. 274", "Jonst. Quadr., t. 77. f. 10", "Olear. mus. t. 8, f. 4", Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 2: pl. 12, fig. 5. Also one specimen in the NHRM (see Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 2 for image of NHRM type).Type locality: "Europa"; restricted by Mertens and Müller, 1928, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 41: 14, to "Nürnberg", Germany.

Salamandra candida Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 41. Type(s): Including specimen illustrated by "Wurfbain [Wurffbainus, 1683, Salamandrologia:] Tab. II, Fig. 1". Type locality: "Patavii" = Padova Province, Italy. Synonymy by Brame, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 71.

Salamandra maculosa Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 42, 150. Types: Including salamanders figured by Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost.: frontispiece and "Wurfbain [= Wurffbainus, 1683, Salamandrologia:] Tab. II, Fig. 2 cum satis bona desriptione pag. 65". Type locality: "subalpinis, & alpinis, & aliis montosis sylvaticis", presumably in the region of Wien, Austria; restricted to "Wienerwald, N[or]d-Österreich" by Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 150. Synonymy by Gravenhorst, 1807, Vergleich. Uebersicht Linn. Neuern Zool. Syst.: 431 (under Salamandra terrestris); Schinz, 1822, Thierr. Naturgesch., 2: 178 (under Salamandra maculosa); Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 451; Dugès, 1852, Ann. Sci. Nat., Paris, Ser. 3, 17: 259; Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 75 (under Salamandra maculosa); Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 3 (under Salamandra maculosa); Nikolskii, 1918, Fauna Rossii, Zemnovodnye: 185.

Salamandra terrestris Houttuyn, 1782, Verh. Zeeuwsch. Genootsch. Wetensch. Vlissingen, 9: 327. Type(s): Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: Not stated explicitly, but implied to be from Germany. Nomen oblitum.

Salamandra terrestris Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 190, 456; Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: Table following page 618, and referencing account starting on page 455. Type(s): Not known to exist, although probably originally MNHNP, and including animals described or illustrated by a large number of authors on page 191 of the 16mo edition and page 454 of the 4to edition. Type locality: "bois humides de'Allemagne", and "Alpes", implied throughout Europe; restricted to "Normandie, Frankreich" by Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 136. Intended as a collective replacement name for a group of nominal taxa including Salamandra maculosa Laurenti and Lacerta salamandra Linnaeus, as well as pre-Linnaean names. Rejected as a nonbinominal work by Opinion 2104, Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: 55. Synonymy by Gravenhorst, 1807, Vergleich. Uebersicht Linn. Neuern Zool. Syst.: 431 (under Salamandra maculosa); Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 185; Bonaparte, 1837, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 19): 95; Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 451; Dugès, 1852, Ann. Sci. Nat., Paris, Ser. 3, 17: 259; Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 75 (under Salamandra maculosa); Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 3. Rejected as published in a nonbinominal work by Opinion 2104, Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: 55.

Salamandra terrestris Bonnaterre, 1789, Tab. Encyclop. Method. Trois Reg. Nat., Erp.: 62. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: Saint-Geniez en Rouergue (now Saint-Genierz-d'Olt [France], according to Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 27, who discussed the taxonomic status of the name.

Gecko salamandraMeyer, 1795, Synops. Rept. Nov. Sist. Gen. Method.: 25.

Triton vulgaris Rafinesque, 1814, Specchio Sci., 2, 2: 103. Substitute name for Lacerta salamandra Linnaeus, 1758, and attributed to Daudin.

Salamandra maculata Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 185. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "Habitat in Europa media et australi". Intended as a substitute name for Salamandra maculosa Laurenti, 1768, Lacerta salamandra Linnaeus, 1758, and Salamandra terrestris Schneider, 1799. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 3.

Salamandra vulgaris Cloquet, 1827, Dict. Sci. Nat.: 50. Substitute name for Lacerta salamandra Linnaeus, 1758, and Salamandra maculosa Laurenti, 1768.

Triton corthyphorus Leydig, 1867, Arch. Naturgesch., 33: 240. Type(s): Not stated. Type locality: Not stated; given as Hetzles, three hours from Erlangen by XXX. Named coined as a synonym of Salamandra maculosa and attributed apparently in error to "Wagler, die Amphibien, Heft I, 1820"; repeated by Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 75.

Salamandra maculosa var. nera Doderlein, 1872, Annu. Soc. Nat. Modena, 6: 206. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "centro dell'Isola [Sicily]". Nomen nudum.

Salamandra maculosa var. pezzata Doderlein, 1872, Annu. Soc. Nat. Modena, 6: 206. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "centro dell'Isola [Sicily]". Nomen nudum.

Salamandra maculosaBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 3.

Salamandra maculosa var. europaea Bedriaga, 1883, Arch. Naturgesch., 49: 252. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: Not stated, but implied to be the "typical" form, therefore implying the region of Austria and Germany; restricted to "Heidelberg", Germany by Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 130. Considered a junior synonym of Salamandra salamandra terrestris by Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 135.

Salamandra maculosa var. gallaica López-Seoane, 1885 "1884", La Identidad de Lacerta schreiberi . . .: 13. Type(s): Not stated but presumably originally in López-Seoane's personal collection. BMNH 1885.1.29.10 designated neotype by Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 132. Type locality: "en los sitio húmedos y en los sotanos, entre los escombros etc.", Galicia, Spain; restricted to "La Coruña, Spanien" by Mertens and Müller, 1928, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 41: 14.

Salamandra maculosa var. molleri Bedriaga, 1889, Instituto, Coimbra, Ser. 2, 36: 761. Syntypes: Including ZMH A00777-779 according to Hallermann, 1998, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 95: 200. Dunayev and Orlova, 1994, Russ. J. Herpetol., 1: 63, considered ZMM A-7061 a syntype. NHMW 9257.1 designated lectotype by Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 133. Type locality: "Portugal"; restricted to "Coimbra, Portugal" by Mertens and Müller, 1928, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 41: 14. Synonymy with Salamandra maculosa var. gallaica by Boulenger, 1892, Zool. Rec., 27: 27.

Salamandra salamandraLönnberg, 1896, Bih. K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 22: 10.

Salamandra maculosa var. nigriventris Dürigen, 1897, Deutschl. Amph. Rept.: 578. Type(s): Not stated. Type locality: not stated; Deutschland; by implication.

Salamandra maculosa var. typica Bedriaga, 1897 "1896", Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, N.S.,, 10: 287. Type(s): ZISP. Type locality: Ambiguously stated, but implied to be Österreich; restricted to "Österreich" by Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 130. Considered a junior synonym of Salamandra salamandra terrestris by Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 135.

Salamandra maculosa var. taeniata Dürigen, 1897, Deutschl. Amph. Rept.: 577. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: Not stated; Deutschland; by implication; restricted to "Harz", Germany, by Mertens and Müller, 1928, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 41: 14.

Salamandra maculosa var. quadri-virgata Dürigen, 1897, Deutschl. Amph. Rept.: 577. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: Not stated; Deutschland; by implication; restricted to Solling Mountains, Weserbergland, Germany by Mertens, 1948, Senckenb. Biol., 28: 187. Considered a junior synonym of Salamandra salamandra terrestris by Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 135.

Salamandra maculosa var. coccinea Schweizerbarth, 1909, Bl. Aquar. Terrarienkd., Stuttgart, 20: 382. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "Im Wester der Stadt Stuttgart zieht sich vom Kräherwald ein kleines Bächlein herab, zum Teil gefasst: der Falkertbrunnen", Germany. Considered a junior synonym of Salamandra salamandra terrestris by Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 135. Junior primary homonym of Salamandra coccinea De Kay, 1842.

Salamandra salamandra salamandraPoche, 1912, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 61: 402.

Salamandra moncherianaSchreiber, 1912, Herpetol. Eur., Ed. 2: 128. Spelling error.

Salamandra maculata Schreiber, 1912, Herpetol. Eur., Ed. 2: 128. Substitute name coined as a junior synonymy of Salamandra maculosa Laurenti and attributed erroneously to Schrank, 1786, Baiersche Reise: "pag. 311" (which only has 276 pp.-- DRF).

Salamandra maculosa forma fastuosa Schreiber, 1912, Herpetol. Eur., Ed. 2: 131. Type(s): Not stated; NHMW 9259.1 designated neotype by Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 135. Type locality: "südwestlichen Europe"; neotype is from "Bilbao, NW-Spanien".

Salamandra maculosa var. speciosa Schreiber, 1912, Herpetol. Eur., Ed. 2: 132. Type(s): Not stated. Type locality: "Württemberg", Germany. Considered a junior synonym of Salamandra salamandra terrestris by Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 135.

Salamandra salamandra gallaicaNikolskii, 1918, Fauna Rossii, Zemnovodnye: 187; Mertens, 1925, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 39: 39.

Salamandra salamandra molleriNikolskii, 1918, Fauna Rossii, Zemnovodnye: 187.

Salamandra salamandra taeniataNikolskii, 1918, Fauna Rossii, Zemnovodnye: 188.

Salamandra maculosa var. taeniata forma Bonnali Wolterstorff, 1925, Abh. Ber. Mus. Nat. Heimatkd. Magdeburg, 4: 239. Type(s): MM (destroyed in W.W.II). Type locality: "Pic de la Cardinquère, 1800—2000 Meter, bei Cauterets, Pyreneäen". Unavailable tetranomial.

Salamandra salamandra taeniataMertens, 1925, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 39: 38; Mertens and Müller, 1940, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 451: 13.

Salamandra maculosa taeniata forma bernardezi Wolterstorff, 1928, Bl. Aquar. Terrarienkd., Stuttgart, 39: 133. Syntypes: MM, destroyed in WWII. SMF 29390, designated neotype by Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 134. Type locality: "Oviedo", northwestern Spain. Unavailable tetranomial.

Salamandra salamandra carpathica Calinescu, 1931, Mem. Sect. Sciin. Acad. Româna Bucaresti, Ser. 3, 7: 131. Syntypes: Not stated, but presumably originally in MGAB. Type localities: "la Tismana" (1 specimen); "Baile Herculane" (3 specimens); "Sinaia, Valea Tufei" (2 specimens); "A. N. O. la Gura Vaii" (2 specimens); "Valea superioara a Teleajenului (intre 800-1.220 m. altitudine)" (1 specimen); "padurea Romanesti" (1 specimen), "Varciorova" (1 specimen), and "Vale Voditei" (1 specimen), Romania; restricted to Sinaia, Romania by Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 131.

Salamandra maculosa bejarae Wolterstorff, 1934, Bl. Aquar. Terrarienkd., Stuttgart, 45: 149. Syntypes: 7 specimens, presumed MM and destroyed in WWII. SMF 29387 designated neotype by Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 132. Type locality: Lagunilla village near Bejar, Salamanca Province, western Spain. Neotype from "Lagunilla bei Bejar, prov. Salamanca, Spanien".

Salamandra maculosa bezarae Wolterstorff, 1934, Bl. Aquar. Terrarienkd., Stuttgart, 45: 149. Alternative original spelling.

Salamandra salamandra almanzoris Müller and Hellmich, 1935, Zool. Anz., 112: 49. Holotype: ZSM 2046, by original designation and Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 158. Type locality: "Laguna Grande de Gredos (2027 m)", Sierra de Gredos, central Spain.

Salamandra salamandra (= maculosa) hispanica Wolterstorff, 1937, Zool. Anz., 118: 281. Holotype: MM 303a; destroyed in WWII. SMF 21754 designated neotype by Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 132. Type locality: "Umbegung von Barcelona", Spain; neotype from "Montseny, Prov. Barcelona, Spanien", according to Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 132, who rejected this subspecies as distinct from bejarae.

Salamandra maculosa subsp. BernardeziScharlinski, 1939, Abh. Ber. Mus. Nat. Heimatkd. Magdeburg, 7: 32.

Salamandra salamandra albanica Gayda, 1940 "1939", Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Milano, 79: 265. Holotype: ZMB, lost according to Bauer, Good, and Günther, 1993, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 69: 301. Type locality: "Spas sul Drin", Albania.

Salamandra salamandra thuringica Gayda, 1940 "1939", Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Milano, 79: 265. Syntypes: NMM and ZMB, lost according to Bauer, Good, and Günther, 1993, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 69: 301. Type locality: "Siebenborn-Eisenach", Thuringia, Germany. Considered a junior synonym of Salamandra salamandra terrestris by Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 135.

Salamandra salamandra bejaraeMertens and Müller, 1940, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 451: 12.

Salamandra salamandra hispanicaMertens and Müller, 1940, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 451: 12.

Salamandra salamandra bonnaliMertens and Müller, 1940, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 451: 12.

Salamandra salamandra bernardaziMertens and Müller, 1940, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 451: 12.

Salamandra salamandra forma francica Sochurek and Gayda, 1941, Aquarium, Berlin, 15: 43. Syntypes: ZMB; ZMB 35461 designated lectotype by Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 135; ZMB 35461 is holotype according to Bauer, Good, and Günther, 1993, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 69: 296. Type locality: "Lohr am Main", Germany.

Salamandra salamandra forma werneri Sochurek and Gayda, 1941, Aquarium, Berlin, 15: 39. Holotype: ZMB 10559, according to Bauer, Good, and Günther, 1993, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 69: 297. Type locality: "auf dem Pelion [near Volos] in Griechenland".

Salamandra salamandra gigliolii Eiselt and Lanza, 1956, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 9: 3. Holotype: MZUF KL 200 (formerly Lanza 200), by original designaiton. Type locality: "Monte Pecoraro bei Mongiana, Provinz Catanzaro, Süditalien, aus ungefähr 1000 m Seehöhe".

Salamandra salamandra salamandra — Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 130.

Salamandra salamandra fastuosa — Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 134.

Salamandra salamandra terrestrisEiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 135. Preoccupied name (see above).

Salamandra (Salamandra) salamandraÖzeti, 1967, Copeia, 1967: 287.

Salamandra salamandra bernardeziGasser, 1978, Arch. Zool. Exp. Gen., 119: 642.

Salamandra salamandra beschkovi Obst, 1981, Faun. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd., Dresden, 8: 197. Holotype: MTD D 17766, by original designation. Type locality: "Sandaski-Bistrica-Tal nördlich der Stadt Sandanski bis zur Siedlung Jane Sandanski am SW-Abfall des Pirin-Gebirges, S-Bulgarien", Bulgaria.

Salamandra salamandra (gallaica) crespoi Malkmus, 1983, Faun. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd., Dresden, 10: 169. Holotype: ZFMK 36842, by original designation. Type locality: "Nordhang der Picota/Serra de Monchique; zwischen Monchique und Alferce, 400 m ü NN".

Salamandra salamandra morenica Joger and Steinfartz, 1994, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 17: 90. Holotype: HLD RA 2200, by original designation and according to Köhler and Güsten, 2007, Spixiana, München, 30: 277. Type locality: "Umgebung von Cazella de la Sierra, Sierra Morena, Südspanien".

Salamandra salamandra alfredschmidti Köhler and Steinfartz, 2006, Salamandra, 42: 15. Holotype: SMF 83023, by original designation. Type locality: "Tendi valley, Asturias, Spain".

Salamandra (Salamandra) salamandra (crespoi) crespoiDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 69.

Salamandra (Salamandra) salamandra (crespoi) morenicaDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 69.

Salamandra (Salamandra) salamandra (fastuosa) alfredschmidtiDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 69.

Salamandra (Salamandra) salamandra (fastuosa) bernardeziDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 69.

Salamandra (Salamandra) salamandra (fastuosa) fastuosaDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 69.

Salamandra (Salamandra) salamandra (fastuosa) giglioliiDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 69.

Salamandra (Salamandra) salamandra (salamandra) bejaraeDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 69.

Salamandra (Salamandra) salamandra (salamandra) beschkoviDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 69.

Salamandra (Salamandra) salamandra (salamandra) gallaicaDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 69.

Salamandra (Salamandra) salamandra (salamandra) salamandraDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 69.

Salamandra (Salamandra) salamandra (salamandra) terrestrisDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 69.

Salamandra (Salamandra) salamandra (salamandra) werneriDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 69.

Salamandra (Salamandra) almanzorisDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 69.

English Names

Spotted Salamander (Flower, 1933, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1933: 837; Bruno, 1973, Natura, Milano, 64: 263; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 61).

European Salamander (Hellmich, 1962, Rept. Amph. Eur.: 50; Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 39; Bruno, 1973, Natura, Milano, 64: 263; Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 33).

Fire Salamander (Hellmich, 1962, Rept. Amph. Eur.: 50; Arnold and Burton, 1978, Field Guide Rept. Amph. Brit. Eur.: 33; Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 33; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 61).

Spotted Salamander (Salamandra salamandra salamandra: Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 39).

Central Spanish Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra almanzoris: Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 39).

Spanish Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra bejarae: Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 39).

Pyrenean Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra fastuosa: Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 39).

Portuguese Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra gallaica: Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 39).

Italian Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra giglioli: Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 39).

Banded Salamander (Salamandra salamandra terrestris: Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 39).

European Fire Salamander (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 36).

Distribution

Western, central, and southern Europe from Portugal to Thrace and Greece, north to eastern Belgium, northern Germany, southern Poland, southeastern Ukraine and eastern Bulgaria.

Comment

For subspecies (including what is now Salamandra algira, Salamandra infraimmaculata, and Salamandra corsica) see Thorn, 1968, Salamand. Eur. Asie Afr. Nord: 163. Joger and Steinfartz, 1994, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 17: 83–98, discussed geographic variation in southern Iberia and named a new subspecies. See comments on this work by Veith, 1996, Amphibia-Reptilia, 17: 174–177. García-París, Alcobendas, and Alberch, 1998, Copeia, 1998: 173–176, discussed relationships among the subspecies of southern Spain. See account by Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 131–137. Highton, 2000, in Bruce et al., Biol. Plethodontid Salamanders: 225, discussed previously published allozyme data and on that basis suggested that possibly Salamandra salamandra gallica and Salamandra salamandra terrestris were different species. Steinfartz, Veith, and Tautz, 2000, Mol. Ecol., 9: 397–410, discussed phylogeography in Europe and noted that southern Italian and Spanish populations were more closely related than either was to population farther north. Başoğlu and Özeti, 1973, Türkiye Amphibileri: 30–35, provided an account for the Turkish populations as did Özeti and Yilmaz, 1994, Türkiye Amfibileri: 43–50 (as including Salamandra infraimmaculata).See also Veith, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 68–69. Lanza, 1983, Guide Reconoscimento Spec. Animali, Anf. Rett.: 60–64, discussed the populations in Italy. Barbadillo-Escrivá, 1987, Guia INCAFO Anf. Rept. Peninsula Iberica: 84–91, provided an account for the Iberian populations. Alcobendas, Dopazo, and Alberch, 1996, J. Evol. Biol., 9: 83–102, questioned the validity of subspecies, at least in the Iberian peninsula. Alcobendas, 1997, in Pleguezuelos (ed.), Dist. Biogeogr. Anf. Rep. Esp. Portugal: 112–114, provided a brief account, photograph, and detailed map for Iberia. Llorente, Montori, Santos, and Carretero, 1995, Atlas Amf. Rept. Catalunya Andorra: 40–42, provided an account and detailed range map for Catalunya and Andorra. See account by Theismeier and Grossenbacher, 2003, in Grossenbacher and Thiesmeier (eds.), Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., 4(IIB): 1059–1132. Llorente, Montori, Santos, and Carretero, 1995, Atlas Amf. Rept. Catalunya Andorra: 40–42, provided an account for Andorra and Catalunya (Spain). : 153–157, provided brief accounts by subspecies, figures, and map. See comments on Italian populations by Razzetti, Andreone, Corti, and Sindaco, 2006, in Sindaco et al. (ed.), Atlas Ital. Amph. Rept.: 160. Valakos, Pafilis, Sotiropoulos, Lymberakis, Maragou, and Foufopoulos, 2008, Amph. Rept. Greece: 147–150, provided an account for Greece. See detailed account by Caldonazzi, Nistri, and Tripepi, 2007, in Lanza et al. (eds.), Fauna d'Italia, 42 (Amph.): 221–227, for the Italian population. Nöllert and Nöllert, 1992, Die Amph. Eur.: 172–179, provided a brief account and polygon map for Europe. Szelényi, Kiss, and Vörös, 2010, Herpetol. Rev., 41: 102, provided a record from the Budapest Hills, Hungary. Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 36, provided their rationale for recognizing Salamandra salamandra almanzoris as a distinct species. Speybroeck, Beukema, and Crochet, 2010, Zootaxa, 2492: 4, discussed and rejected this arrangement as inconsistent with published evidence. See detailed discussion of this species in the Netherlands by Gubbels, 2009, in Creemers and van Delft (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nederland: 87–95. Rivera, Escoriza, Maluquer-Margalef, Arribas, and Carranza, 2011, Amf. Rept. Catalunya: 36–39, provided a brief account for northeastern Spain and adjacent France. Stojanov, Tzankov, and Naumov, 2011, Die Amph. Rept. Bulgariens: 90–96, provided a fairly detailed account and range map for Bulgaria. Labus, Vukov, Ljubisavljević, and Džukić, 2012, North-West. J. Zool., Romania, 8: 92–98, reported on geographically unstructured morphological variation in the Balkans.  Cogǎlniceanu, Székely, Samoilă, Iosif, Tudor, Plăiaşu, Stănescu, and Rozylowicz, 2013, ZooKeys, 296: 35–57, provided a dot map for Romania. Jablonski, Balej, Jůna, and Homolka, 2013, Herpetol. Notes, 6: 563–566, reported low elevation (below 200 m) records from the valley of the Cetina River of Croatia as well as near Sempas, Slovenia, and Elenite, Bugaria. Ianc, Cicort-Lucaciu, Ilieș, and Kovács, 2012, North-West. J. Zool., Romania, 8: 202–204, discussed the range in Romania and noted a population from the mouths of caves in the Padurea Craiului Mountains. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 193–199, provided brief accounts by subspecies, photographs, and map. Najbar, Babik, Najbar, and Ogielska, 2015, Amphibia-Reptilia, 36: 301–311, discussed genetic structure and differentiation in the Carpathian Mountains of Poland. Konowalik, Najbar, Babik, Steinfartz, and Ogielska, 2016, Amphibia-Reptilia, 37: 405–415, reported on the genetics of the Sudetes Mountains of southwestern Poland. Vörös, Ursenbacher, Kiss, Jelić, Schweiger, and Szabó, 2017, J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res., 55: 138–139, noted increased genetic structuring among isolated populations on the southern slope of the Carpathian Mountains in northern Hungary. 

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